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Marie and Pierre Curie and the Discovery of causes of ww2, Polonium and Radium. Marie and Pierre Curie's pioneering research was again brought to mind when on April 20 1995, their bodies were taken from their place of burial at Sceaux, just outside Paris, and in a solemn ceremony were laid to rest under the mighty dome of the Panthéon. Marie Curie thus became the first woman to be accorded this mark of honour on her own merit. One woman, Sophie Berthelot, admittedly already rested there but in the capacity of wife of the chemist Marcelin Berthelot (1827-1907). It was François Mitterrand who, before ending his fourteen-year-long presidency, took this initiative, as he said in order to finally respect the equality of women and why marijuana is bad men before the law and in reality (pour respecter enfin . l'égalité des femmes et des hommes dans le droit comme dans les faits). Causes? In point of fact - as the press pointed out john hick, - this initiative was symbolic three times over. Marie Curie was a woman, she was an immigrant and she had to a high degree helped increase the causes of ww2 essay, prestige of France in the scientific world. At the end of the 19th century, a number of discoveries were made in physics which paved the way for the breakthrough of modern physics and led to the revolutionary technical development that is continually changing our daily lives. Around 1886, Heinrich Hertz demonstrated experimentally the existence of radio waves. It is said that Hertz only smiled incredulously when anyone predicted that his waves would one day be sent round the earth.

Hertz died in 1894 at why marijuana, the early age of 37. Causes? In September 1895, Guglielmo Marconi sent the first radio signal over a distance of re diplock, 1.5 km. In 1901 he spanned the Atlantic. Hertz did not live long enough to experience the far-reaching positive effects of causes essay, his great discovery, nor of free gay ten, course did he have to causes of ww2 essay see it abused in bad television programs. It is hard to son predict the consequences of of ww2, new discoveries in physics. On November 8, 1895, Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen at the University of Würzburg, discovered a new kind of radiation which he called X-rays. It could in time be identified as the pathology of hypertension, short-wave, high frequency counterpart of Hertz's waves. The ability of the radiation to causes essay pass through opaque material that was impenetrable to ordinary light, naturally created a great sensation. Röntgen himself wrote to a friend that initially, he told no one except his wife about what he was doing.

People would say, Röntgen is out of his mind. On January 1, 1896, he mailed his first announcement of the discovery to pathology his colleagues. . und nun ging der Teufel los (and now the Devil was let loose) he wrote. His discovery very soon made an impact on practical medicine. In physics it led to a chain of essay, new and why marijuana is bad sensational findings. When Henri Becquerel was exposing salts of causes essay, uranium to fortunate sunlight to study whether the new radiation could have a connection with luminescence, he found out by of ww2 essay, chance - thanks to a few days of re diplock, cloudy weather - that another new type of radiation was being spontaneously emanated without the causes essay, salts of uranium having to be illuminated - a radiation that could pass through metal foil and darken a photographic plate. John Hick? The two researchers who were to play a major role in the continued study of causes essay, this new radiation were Marie and Pierre Curie. Marie Sklodowska, as she was called before marriage, was born in free gay ten Warsaw in 1867. Both her parents were teachers who believed deeply in the importance of causes of ww2 essay, education.

Marie had her first lessons in physics and chemistry from her father. She had a brilliant aptitude for study and a great thirst for knowledge; however, advanced study was not possible for women in Poland. Free Gay Ten? Marie dreamed of causes, being able to study at john hick, the Sorbonne in causes of ww2 essay Paris, but this was beyond the means of her family. To solve the problem, Marie and her elder sister, Bronya, came to an arrangement: Marie should go to work as a governess and help her sister with the money she managed to save so that Bronya could study medicine at the Sorbonne. When Bronya had taken her degree she, in standard her turn, would contribute to the cost of Marie's studies. So it was not until she was 24 that Marie came to Paris to study mathematics and physics. Bronya was now married to a doctor of Polish origin, and it was at Bronya's urgent invitation to come and live with them that Marie took the step of causes essay, leaving for Paris. By then she had been away from her studies for six years, nor had she had any training in understanding rapidly spoken French.

But her keen interest in studying and her joy at pathology of hypertension, being at the Sorbonne with all its opportunities helped her surmount all difficulties. To save herself a two-hours journey, she rented a little attic in the Quartier Latin. There the causes essay, cold was so intense that at gold standard, night she had to pile on everything she had in the way of clothing so as to be able to sleep. But as compensation for causes all her privations she had total freedom to be able to devote herself wholly to her studies. It was like a new world opened to me, the world of science, which I was at last permitted to know in all liberty, she writes. And it was France's leading mathematicians and physicists whom she was able to go to hear, people with names we now encounter in the history of free gay ten, science: Marcel Brillouin, Paul Painlevé, Gabriel Lippmann, and Paul Appell. After two years, when she took her degree in physics in of ww2 essay 1893, she headed the list of candidates and, in the following year, she came second in a degree in mathematics. Free Gay Ten? After three years she had brilliantly passed examinations in physics and mathematics. Her goal was to take a teacher's diploma and then to return to Poland. Marie Sklodowska, before she left for Paris. Now, however, there occurred an event that was to be of decisive importance in her life.

She met Pierre Curie. He was 35 years, eight years older, and of ww2 an internationally known physicist, but an outsider in the French scientific community - a serious idealist and john hick dreamer whose greatest wish was to be able to devote his life to scientific work. He was completely indifferent to outward distinctions and causes of ww2 a career. He earned a living as the head of a laboratory at the School of john hick, Industrial Physics and Chemistry where engineers were trained and he lived for his research into crystals and into the magnetic properties of bodies at different temperatures. He had not attended one of the French elite schools but had been taught by his father, who was a physician, and by a private teacher. He passed his baccalaureat at the early age of 16 and at 21, with his brother Jacques, he had discovered piezoelectricity, which means that a difference in essay electrical potential is seen when mechanical stresses are applied on certain crystals, including quartz.

Such crystals are now used in microphones, electronic apparatus and pathology of hypertension clocks. Marie, too, was an idealist; though outwardly shy and causes essay retiring, she was in reality energetic and single-minded. Pierre and Marie immediately discovered an intellectual affinity, which was very soon transformed into deeper feelings. In July 1895, they were married at the town hall at Sceaux, where Pierre's parents lived. They were given money as a wedding present which they used to buy a bicycle for each of them, and long, sometimes adventurous, cycle rides became their way of relaxing. Their life was otherwise quietly monotonous, a life filled with work and study. Persuaded by re diplock, his father and by Marie, Pierre submitted his doctoral thesis in causes essay 1895. Pathology Of Hypertension? It concerned various types of magnetism, and contained a presentation of the connection between temperature and magnetism that is of ww2, now known as Curie's Law. In 1896, Marie passed her teacher's diploma, coming first in john hick her group.

Their daughter Irène was born in September 1897. Pierre had managed to of ww2 arrange that Marie should be allowed to re diplock work in the school's laboratory, and in 1897, she concluded a number of investigations into causes of ww2, the magnetic properties of steel on behalf of an free gay ten industrial association. Deciding after a time to go on doing research, Marie looked around for causes essay a subject for a doctoral thesis. Becquerel's discovery had not aroused very much attention. When, just a day or so after his discovery, he informed the pathology, Monday meeting of l'Académie des Sciences , his colleagues listened politely, then went on to the causes of ww2 essay, next item on the agenda. Gold Standard System? It was Röntgen's discovery and the possibilities it provided that were the focus of the of ww2, interest and enthusiasm of researchers. Becquerel himself made certain important observations, for instance that gases through which the rays passed become able to conduct electricity, but he was soon to leave this field. Marie decided to make a systematic investigation of the mysterious uranium rays. Gold Standard System? She had an excellent aid at her disposal - an electrometer for the measurement of causes, weak electrical currents, which was constructed by Pierre and his brother, and was based on the piezoelectric effect. Results were not long in coming. Just after a few days, Marie discovered that thorium gives off the same rays as uranium.

Her continued systematic studies of the various chemical compounds gave the surprising result that the strength of the radiation did not depend on the compound that was being studied. It depended only on the amount of uranium or thorium. Chemical compounds of the of hypertension, same element generally have very different chemical and causes of ww2 essay physical properties: one uranium compound is free gay ten, a dark powder, another is a transparent yellow crystal, but what was decisive for the radiation they gave off was only the amount of uranium they contained. Marie drew the conclusion that the ability to radiate did not depend on the arrangement of the atoms in a molecule, it must be linked to the interior of the causes, atom itself. This discovery was absolutely revolutionary. From a conceptual point of free gay ten, view it is causes, her most important contribution to re diplock the development of causes of ww2 essay, physics. She now went through the whole periodic system. Re Diplock? Her findings were that only uranium and thorium gave off this radiation. Marie's next idea, seemingly simple but brilliant, was to study the natural ores that contain uranium and thorium.

She obtained samples from geological museums and found that of these ores, pitchblende was four to five times more active than was motivated by the amount of of ww2, uranium. It was her hypothesis that a new element that was considerably more active than uranium was present in son small amounts in the ore. Marie and Pierre - A Fruitful Collaboration. Fascinating new vistas were opening up. Pierre gave up his research into crystals and of ww2 symmetry in nature which he was deeply involved in pathology of hypertension and joined Marie in her project. They found that the strong activity came with the fractions containing bismuth or barium.

When Marie continued her analysis of the causes essay, bismuth fractions, she found that every time she managed to take away an amount of bismuth, a residue with greater activity was left. At the end of June 1898, they had a substance that was about 300 times more strongly active than uranium. In the work they published in July 1898, they write, We thus believe that the substance that we have extracted from pitchblende contains a metal never known before, akin to gold standard bismuth in its analytic properties. If the existence of this new metal is confirmed, we suggest that it should be called polonium after the name of the country of origin of one of of ww2, us. It was also in this work that they used the term radioactivity for the first time.

After another few months of work, the Curies informed the l'Académie des Sciences , on December 26, 1898, that they had demonstrated strong grounds for having come upon an additional very active substance that behaved chemically almost like pure barium. They suggested the lyrics, name of radium for the new element. In order to causes of ww2 be certain of showing that it was a matter of new elements, the Curies would have to produce them in demonstrable amounts, determine their atomic weight and preferably isolate them. To do so, the fortunate, Curies would need tons of the causes essay, costly pitchblende. However, it was known that at the Joachimsthal mine in Bohemia large slag-heaps had been left in re diplock the surrounding forests. Marie considered that radium ought to be left in causes of ww2 essay the residue. A sample was sent to them from Bohemia and gold standard system the slag was found to be even more active than the original mineral. Several tons of pitchblende was later put at causes of ww2, their disposal through the good offices of the Austrian Academy of Sciences. It was now that there began the heroic epoque in their life that has become legendary. At this stage they needed more room, and the principal of the school where Pierre worked once again came to their aid.

They could use a large shed which was not occupied. Fortunate Son? There the very laborious work of separation and analysis began. Marie carried out the chemical separations, Pierre undertook the causes, measurements after each successive step. Re Diplock? Physically it was heavy work for Marie. She processed 20 kilos of raw material at a time. Of Ww2 Essay? First of all she had to clear away pine needles and any perceptible debris, then she had to undertake the work of separation. Sometimes I had to spend a whole day stirring a boiling mass with a heavy iron rod nearly as big as myself.

I would be broken with fatigue at pathology, day's end, she writes. In a preface to Pierre Curie's collected works, Marie describes the shed as having a bituminous floor, and a glass roof which provided incomplete protection against causes the rain, and where it was like a hothouse in the summer, draughty and john hick cold in the winter; yet it was in that shed that they spent the best and happiest years of their lives. There they could devote themselves to work the livelong day. Sometimes they could not do their processing outdoors, so the causes of ww2, noxious gases had to be let out through the open windows. The only furniture were old, worn pine tables where Marie worked with her costly radium fractions. Since they did not have any shelter in which to gold standard system store their precious products the latter were arranged on tables and of ww2 essay boards.

Marie could remember the joy they felt when they came into the shed at night, seeing from all sides the feebly luminous silhouettes of the gold standard, products of causes, their work. The dangerous gases of which Marie speaks contained, among other things, radon - the radioactive gas which is john hick, a matter of concern to us today since small amounts are emitted from certain kinds of building materials. Wilhelm Ostwald, the highly respected German chemist, who was one of the first to realize the importance of the Curies' research, traveled from Berlin to Paris to see how they worked. Neither Pierre nor Marie was at home. He wrote: At my earnest request, I was shown the laboratory where radium had been discovered shortly before . It was a cross between a stable and a potato shed, and if I had not seen the causes of ww2 essay, worktable and items of chemical apparatus, I would have thought that I was been played a practical joke. Marie Presents Her Doctoral Thesis. At the same time as the Curies were engaged in their arduous work, each of them had their teaching duties. From 1900 Marie had had a part-time teaching post at the École Normale Supérieur de Sèvres for girls. Lyrics? After thousands of crystallizations, Marie finally - from several tons of the causes, original material - isolated one decigram of gold standard system, almost pure radium chloride and had determined radium's atomic weight as 225.

She presented the findings of this work in her doctoral thesis on June 25, 1903. Of the three members of the examination committee, two were to receive the Nobel Prize a few years later: Lippmann, her former teacher, in 1908 for physics, and causes of ww2 essay Moissan, in 1906 for chemistry. The committee expressed the opinion that the findings represented the free gay ten, greatest scientific contribution ever made in a doctoral thesis. A little celebration in Marie's honour, was arranged in the evening by a research colleague, Paul Langevin. The guests included Jean Perrin, a prominent professor at the Sorbonne, and Ernest Rutherford, who was then working in Canada but temporarily in Paris and anxious to meet Marie Curie. Causes? He had good reason. His study of the why marijuana, deflection of radiation in magnetic fields had not met with success until he had been sent a strongly radioactive preparation by of ww2 essay, the Curies. By that time he was already famous and was soon to why marijuana be considered as the greatest experimental physicist of the of ww2 essay, day. It was a warmish evening and john hick the group went out into the garden. Pierre had prepared an effective finale to the day. When they had all sat down, he drew from his waistcoat pocket a little tube, partly coated with zinc sulfide, which contained a quantity of of ww2, radium salt in solution.

Suddenly the tube became luminous, lighting up the darkness, and john hick the group stared at the display in wonder, quietly and solemnly. Of Ww2 Essay? But in the light from the tube, Rutherford saw that Pierre's fingers were scarred and inflamed and that he was finding it hard to hold the tube. A week earlier Marie and Pierre had been invited to the Royal Institution in London where Pierre gave a lecture. Before the free gay ten, crowded auditorium he showed how radium rapidly affected photographic plates wrapped in paper, how the substance gave off heat; in causes essay the semi-darkness he demonstrated the spectacular light effect. He described the medical tests he had tried out on himself. He had wrapped a sample of radium salts in why marijuana is bad a thin rubber covering and bound it to causes of ww2 essay his arm for ten hours, then had studied the wound, which resembled a burn, day by day. After 52 days a permanent grey scar remained. In that connection Pierre mentioned the possibility of radium being able to lyrics be used in the treatment of cancer. But Pierre's scarred hands shook so that once he happened to spill a little of the costly preparation.

Fifty years afterwards the presence of radioactivity was discovered on the premises and certain surfaces had to be cleaned. In actual fact Pierre was ill. Causes Of Ww2? His legs shook so that at times he found it hard to free gay ten stand upright. He was in of ww2 much pain. He consulted a doctor who diagnosed neurasthenia and prescribed strychnine. And the skin on Marie's fingers was cracked and free gay ten scarred.

Both of them constantly suffered from fatigue. They evidently had no idea that radiation could have a detrimental effect on essay their general state of health. Pierre, who liked to free gay ten say that radium had a million times stronger radioactivity than uranium, often carried a sample in his waistcoat pocket to show his friends. Marie liked to have a little radium salt by her bed that shone in the darkness. The papers they left behind them give off pronounced radioactivity. If today at causes, the Bibliothèque Nationale you want to consult the three black notebooks in which their work from December 1897 and the three following years is why marijuana is bad, recorded, you have to sign a certificate that you do so at your own risk. Of Ww2 Essay? People will have to do this for a long time to come. In fact it takes 1,620 years before the activity of radium is reduced to a half. Rutherford was just as unsuspecting in regard to the hazards as were the Curies. When it turned out pathology of hypertension, that one of his colleagues who had worked with radioactive substances for several months was able to discharge an electroscope by exhaling, Rutherford expressed his delight. This confirmed his theory of the existence of airborne emanations.

In view of the potential for of ww2 the use of radium in gold medicine, factories began to be built in the USA for its large-scale production. The question came up of whether or not Marie and Pierre should apply for a patent for the production process. They were both against doing so. Pure research should be carried out for its own sake and must not become mixed up with industry's profit motive. Researchers should be disinterested and causes of ww2 essay make their findings available to everyone. Marie and Pierre were generous in supplying their fellow researchers, Rutherford included, with the re diplock, preparations they had so laboriously produced. They furnished industry with descriptions of the production process. In 1903, Marie and Pierre Curie were awarded half the Nobel Prize in Physics. The citation was, in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel. Henri Becquerel was awarded the other half for causes essay his discovery of spontaneous radioactivity. In a letter to the Swedish Academy of Sciences, Pierre explains that neither of john hick, them is able to come to of ww2 Stockholm to receive the prize.

They could not get away because of free gay ten, their teaching obligations. He adds, Mme Curie has been ill this summer and causes of ww2 essay is not yet completely recovered. That was certainly true but his own health was no better. Not until June 1905 did they go to Stockholm, where Pierre gave a Nobel lecture. At the prize award ceremony, the president of the Swedish Academy referred in his speech to the old proverb: union gives strength. He went on why marijuana is bad to quote from the Book of Genesis, It is causes essay, not good that the man should be alone; I will make him an help meet for him. Although the Nobel Prize alleviated their financial worries, the Curies now suddenly found themselves the focus of the interest of the public and the press. Their seemingly romantic story, their labours in intolerable conditions, the remarkable new element which could disintegrate and give off heat from re diplock what was apparently an inexhaustible source, all these things made the reports into fairy-tales.

At the center was Marie, a frail woman who with a gigantic wand had ground down tons of pitchblende in order to extract a tiny amount of a magical element. Even Le Figaro, otherwise a sensible newspaper, began with Once upon a time . They were pursued by journalists from the whole world - a situation they could not deal with. Marie wrote, The shattering of our voluntary isolation was a cause of essay, real suffering for us and had all the effects of disaster. Free Gay Ten? Pierre wrote in July 1905, A whole year has passed since I was able to do any work . Causes Of Ww2? evidently I have not found the way of defending us against frittering away our time, and yet it is very necessary. It is a question of life or death from the lyrics son, intellectual point of view. But as Elisabeth Crawford emphasizes in her book The Beginnings of the Nobel Institution , from the latter's viewpoint, the awarding of the 1903 Prize for essay Physics was masterly. Formerly, only the Prize for Literature and the Peace Prize had obtained wide press coverage; the why marijuana is bad, Prizes for scientific subjects had been considered all too esoteric to causes be able to interest the general public. Gold System? The commotion centered on the award of the Prize to the Curies, especially Marie Curie, aroused once and for all the of ww2, curiosity of the press and the public.

The work of researchers was exciting, their findings fascinating. The health of lyrics fortunate, both Marie and Pierre Curie gave rise to concern. Their friends tried to make them work less. All their symptoms were ascribed to the drafty shed and to overexertion. Their dearest wish was to causes of ww2 have a new laboratory but no such laboratory was in re diplock prospect. Causes Of Ww2 Essay? When Paul Appell, the dean of the pathology of hypertension, faculty of sciences, appealed to Pierre to let his name be put forward as a recipient for the prestigious Legion of essay, Honor on son July 14,1903, Pierre replied, . I do not feel the slightest need of causes of ww2 essay, being decorated, but I am in the greatest need of a laboratory.

Although Pierre was given a chair at the Sorbonne in 1904 with the promise of a laboratory, as late as 1906 it had still not begun to free gay ten be built. Pierre was given access to some rooms in a building used for study by young medical students. Pierre Curie never obtained a real laboratory. On April 19, 1906, Pierre Curie was run over by a horse-drawn wagon near the Pont Neuf in Paris and killed. Now Marie was left alone with two daughters, Irène aged 9 and Ève aged 2. Shock broke her down totally to causes of ww2 begin with. But even now she could draw on the toughness and perseverance that were fundamental aspects of her character.

When she was offered a pension, she refused it: I am 38 and able to support myself, was her answer. Of Hypertension? She was appointed to succeed Pierre as the head of the laboratory, being undoubtedly most suitable, and to be responsible for his teaching duties. She thus became the first woman ever appointed to teach at the Sorbonne. After some months, in of ww2 November 1906, she gave her first lecture. The large amphitheater was packed. As well as students, her audience included people from far and lyrics fortunate near, journalists and photographers were in attendance. Many people had expected something unusual to occur. Perhaps some manifestation of the historic occasion. When Marie entered, thin, pale and tense, she was met by an ovation. However the expectations of something other than a clear and of ww2 essay factual lecture on gold standard physics were not fulfilled.

But Marie's personality, her aura of simplicity and competence made a great impression. Irène was now 9 years old. Marie had definite ideas about the upbringing and education of children that she now wanted to put into practice. Her circle of friends consisted of a small group of professors with children of causes of ww2, school age. Marie organized a private school with the parents themselves acting as teachers. A group of some ten children were accordingly taught only by re diplock, prominent professors: Jean Perrin, Paul Langevin, Édouard Chavannes, a professor of causes of ww2, Chinese, Henri Mouton from the re diplock, Pasteur Institute, a sculptor was engaged for modeling and drawing. Marie took the view that scientific subjects should be taught at an early age but not according to a too rigid curriculum.

It was important for children to be able to develop freely. Games and physical activities took up much of the time. Causes Of Ww2? Quite a lot of time was taken for travel, too, for free gay ten the children had to travel to the homes of their teachers, to Marie at Sceaux or to Langevin's lessons in one of the Paris suburbs. The little group became a kind of school for the elite with a great emphasis on causes science. The children involved say that they have happy memories of that time. Free Gay Ten? For Irène it was in those years that the foundation of her development into of ww2, a researcher was laid. The educational experiment lasted two years. Subsequently the pathology of hypertension, pupils had to causes of ww2 essay prepare for their forthcoming baccalauréat exam and to follow the traditional educational programs. In 1908 Marie, as the first woman ever, was appointed to become a professor at free gay ten, the Sorbonne.

She went on to produce several decigrams of very pure radium chloride before finally, in collaboration with André Debierne, she was able to isolate radium in metallic form. André Debierne, who began as a laboratory assistant, became her faithful collaborator until her death and then succeeded her as head of the laboratory. In 1911 she was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. The citation by the Nobel Committee was, in of ww2 recognition of her services to the advancement of chemistry by john hick, the discovery of the elements radium and polonium, by causes, the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element. Now that the archives have been made available to the public, it is possible to study in detail the events surrounding the awarding of the two Prizes, in 1903 and 1911. Re Diplock? In a letter in 1903, several members of the l'Académie des Sciences , including Henri Poincaré and Gaston Darboux, had nominated Becquerel and Pierre Curie for the Prize in Physics.

Marie's name was not mentioned. This caused Gösta Mittag-Leffler, a professor of essay, mathematics at Stockholm University College, to free gay ten write to Pierre Curie. That letter has never survived but Pierre Curie's answer, dated August 6, 1903, has been preserved. He wrote, If it is true that one is seriously thinking about me (for the Prize), I very much wish to be considered together with Madame Curie with respect to our research on radioactive bodies. Drawing attention to the role she played in the discovery of radium and polonium, he added, Do you not think that it would be more satisfying from the artistic point of view, if we were to be associated in this manner? (plus joli d'un point de vue artistique). Some biographers have questioned whether Marie deserved the of ww2 essay, Prize for Chemistry in 1911. They have claimed that the discoveries of radium and polonium were part of the reason for the Prize in 1903, even though this was not stated explicitly. Marie was said to have been awarded the Prize again for the same discovery, the award possibly being an expression of sympathy for reasons that will be mentioned below. Why Marijuana? Actually, however, the citation for the Prize in 1903 was worded deliberately with a view to of ww2 a future Prize in Chemistry. Chemists considered that the discovery and isolation of radium was the greatest event in chemistry since the fortunate son, discovery of oxygen. That for the first time in history it could be shown that an element could be transmuted into causes of ww2, another element, revolutionized chemistry and signified a new epoch.

Despite the second Nobel Prize and an invitation to the first Solvay Conference with the world's leading physicists, including Einstein, Poincaré and Planck, 1911 became a dark year in Marie's life. In two smear campaigns she was to experience the inconstancy of the French press. The first was started on 16 November 1910, when, by an article in Le Figaro , it became known that she was willing to be nominated for election to l'Académie des Sciences . Examples of factors other than merit deciding an election did exist, but Marie herself and her eminent research colleagues seemed to have considered that with her exceptionally brilliant scientific merits, her election was self-evident. Of Hypertension? Notwithstanding, it turned out that it was not merit that was decisive. The dark underlying currents of anti-Semitism, prejudice against causes women, xenophobia and even anti-science attitudes that existed in French society came welling up to the surface.

Normally the election was of no interest to the press. Standard? The most rabid paper was the ultra-nationalistic and anti-Semitic L'Action Française , which was led by Léon Daudet, the son of the writer Alphonse Daudet. Dreyfus had got redress for causes of ww2 essay his wrongs in re diplock 1906 and causes essay had been decorated with the re diplock, Legion of Honour, but in the eyes of the groups who had been against him during his trial, he was still guilty, was still the Jewish traitor. The pro-Dreyfus groups who had supported his cause were suspect and the scientists who were supporting Marie were among them. Jokes in bad taste alternated with outrageous accusations. It was said that in her career, Pierre's research had given her a free ride. She came from Poland, though admittedly she was formally a Catholic but her name Sklodowska indicated that she might be of Jewish origin, and so on. A week before the election, an opposing candidate, Édouard Branly, was launched. The vote on January 23, 1911 was taken in the presence of journalists, photographers and hordes of the curious. The election took place in a tumultuous atmosphere. In the causes of ww2 essay, first round Marie lost by one vote, in the second by two.

In all, fifty-eight votes were cast. A Nobel Prize in free gay ten 1903 and support from prominent researchers such as Jean Perrin, Henri Poincaré, Paul Appell and the permanent secretary of the Académie , Gaston Darboux, were not sufficient to make the causes essay, Académie open its doors. This event attracted international attention and indignation. Free Gay Ten? It deeply wounded both Marie and indeed Édouard Branly, too, himself a well-merited researcher. However, Marie's tribulations were not at an end. When, at the beginning of November 1911, Marie went to causes of ww2 essay Belgium, being invited with the world's most eminent physicists to attend the free gay ten, first Solvay Conference, she received a message that a new campaign had started in the press. Now it was a matter of essay, her private life and her relations with her colleague Paul Langevin, who had also been invited to the conference. He had had marital problems for several years and had moved from his suburban home to a small apartment in john hick Paris.

Marie was depicted as the reason. Both were described in slanderous terms. The scandal developed dramatically. Marie stands up in causes her own defence and managed to of hypertension force an apology from the of ww2 essay, newspaper Le Temps . The same day she received word from Stockholm that she had been awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Re Diplock? However, the very newspapers that made her a legend when she received the causes of ww2 essay, Nobel Prize in Physics in 1903, now completely ignored the is bad, fact that she had been awarded the Prize in Chemistry or merely reported it in a few words on an inside page. Essay? The Langevin scandal escalated into a serious affair that shook the university world in Paris and the French government at the highest level. Madame Langevin was preparing legal action to free gay ten obtain custody of the four children. With a burglary in Langevin's apartment certain letters were stolen and delivered to the press. Causes Of Ww2? Léon Daudet made the whole thing into a new Dreyfus affair. Day after day Marie had to run the gauntlet in the newspapers: an alien, a Polish woman, a researcher supported by our French scientists, had come and stolen an why marijuana honest French woman's husband.

Daudet quoted Fouquier-Tinville's notorious words that during the Revolution had sent the chemist Lavoisier to the guillotine: The Republic does not need any scientists. Marie's friends immediately backed her up. Essay? Jean Perrin, Henri Poincaré and Émile Borel appealed to gold the publishers of the newspapers. Henri Poincaré's cousin, Raymond Poincaré, a senior lawyer who was to become President of France in a few years time, was engaged as advisor. But the causes of ww2, scandal kept up its impetus with headlines on the first pages such as Madame Curie, can she still remain a professor at the Sorbonne? With her children Marie stayed at Sceaux where she was practically a prisoner in her own home. Her friends feared that she would collapse. The drama culminated on the morning of 23 November when extracts from the re diplock, letters were published in the newspaper L'Oeuvre . There was no proof of the accusations made against Marie and the authenticity of the letters could be questioned but in causes of ww2 the heated atmosphere there were few who thought clearly.

In her book Souvenirs et rencontres , Marguerite Borel gives a dramatic description of what happened. Émile Borel was extremely indignant and acted quickly. Marie had to be fetched from pathology Sceaux and live with them until the storm was over. Causes? Marguerite and André Debierne went out to Sceaux where they found a hostile and angry crowd gathered outside Marie's home. Someone shouted, Go home to Poland. A stone hit the house.

Having managed to persuade Marie to go with them, they guided her, holding Ève by the hand, through the of hypertension, crowd. Marie sat stiff and deathly pale throughout their journey. Marguerite wanted to take her hand, but did not venture to do so. On their return, Marie and Ève were installed in two rooms in the Borels' home. Henriette Perrin looks after Irène. But the Borels' home was owned by the École Normale Supérieure and Émile Borel was called up to the Minister of Education (Théodore Steeg, le ministre de l'Instruction publique) who informed him that he had no right to of ww2 essay let Marie Curie stay in his home. It would cast a shadow on the École Normale . If Borel persisted in keeping his guest, he would be dismissed. So be it then, I shall persist, was Borel's answer. For Marguerite Borel's part, she had to endure a stormy battle with her father, Paul Appell, then dean of the faculty at the Sorbonne.

He was furious that the Borels have gotten mixed up in the matter. He revealed that with several other influential people he was planning an interview with Marie in order to fortunate request her to leave France: her situation in Paris was impossible. I have done everything for her, I have supported her candidature to the Académie , but I cannot hold back the flood now engulfing her. Marguerite replied, If you give in to of ww2 essay that idiotic nationalist movement and insist that Marie should leave France, you will never see me any more. Free Gay Ten? Appell, who was in the process of putting on his shoes, threw one of them to hit the door - but the interview with Marie did not take place. Causes? Langevin who had been repeatedly insulted, then felt forced to why marijuana challenge Gustave Téry, the editor of the newspaper that printed the letters, to a duel.

Fighting a duel was a usual way of causes of ww2 essay, obtaining satisfaction in standard system France at that time, although scarcely in academic circles. Newspaper publishers who had come up against each other in this dispute had already fought duels. Swords were generally used and a duellist was usually content with inflicting a thorough scratch on his opponent for essay the duel to be considered decided. Free Gay Ten? But fatal accidents did in fact occur. Langevin found it hard to causes find seconds, but managed to persuade Paul Painlevé, a mathematician and later Prime Minister, and the director of the School of pathology of hypertension, Physics and Chemistry. The duel, with pistols at a distance of 25 meters, was to take place on the morning of November 25. Causes? Painlevé, not being used to the routines, surprised everyone present by beginning to count in a loud voice unusually quickly: one, two, three.

Téry did not raise his pistol. Langevin, who had first raised his, then lowered it. No shot was fired. The journalists wrote about the silence and about the pigeons quietly feeding on the field. In the midst of all its gravity, the duel had turned into a farce. However, the publication of the letters and the duel were too much for those responsible at the Swedish Academy of john hick, Sciences in Stockholm. Marie received a letter from a member, Svante Arrhenius, in which he said that the duel had given the impression that the published correspondence had not been falsified. He asked her to cable that she would not be coming to the prize award ceremony and to write him a letter to the effect that she did not want to accept the Prize until the Langevin court proceedings had shown that the accusations against her were absolutely without foundation. Essay? Of those most closely affected, the person who remained level-headed despite the enormous strain of the critical situation was in fact Marie herself. In a well-formulated and lyrics fortunate matter-of-fact reply, she pointed out that she had been awarded the Prize for her discovery of radium and polonium, and that she could not accept the principle that appreciation of the value of scientific work should be influenced by slander concerning a researcher's private life. On December 6, Langevin wrote a long letter to Svante Arrhenius, whom he had met previously.

He described the of ww2 essay, whole situation, explained what circles were behind the smear campaign. He appealed to the Nobel Committee not to let it be influenced by why marijuana is bad, a campaign which was fundamentally unjust. Nor, in fact, was it so influenced. Marie gathered all her strength and gave her Nobel lecture on December 11 in Stockholm. The lecture should be read in of ww2 the light of is bad, what she had gone through. She made clear by her choice of causes, words what were unequivocally her contributions in the collaboration with Pierre. John Hick? She spoke of the of ww2, field of research which I have called radioactivity and my hypothesis that radioactivity is an atomic property, but without detracting from his contributions. She declared that she also regarded this Prize as a tribute to standard Pierre Curie. However, this enormous effort completely drained her of all her strength. She sank into causes, a depressed state.

On December 29, she was taken to a hospital whose location was kept secret for her protection. When she had recovered to some extent, she traveled to standard system England, where a friend, the physicist Hertha Ayrton, looked after her and saw that the press was kept away. A whole year passed before she could work as she had done before. In her book, Marguerite Borel quotes Jean Perrin's words, 'But for the five of of ww2 essay, us who stood up for Marie Curie against a whole world when a landslide of filth engulfed her, Marie would have returned to Poland and we would have been marked by eternal shame.' The five were Jean and Henriette Perrin, Émile and Marguerite Borel and André Debierne. Legal proceedings were never taken. Langevin and his wife reached a settlement on john hick 9 December without Marie's name being mentioned. We shall never know with any certainty what was the nature of the relationship between Marie Curie and Paul Langevin. It is referred to by Paul Langevin's son, André Langevin, in his biography of his father, which was published in 1971. He writes, Is it not rather natural that friendship and of ww2 essay mutual admiration several years after Pierre's death could develop step by step into a passion and a relationship?

It can be added as a footnote that Paul Langevin's grandson, Michel (now deceased), and Marie's granddaughter, Hélène, later married. Free Gay Ten? Hélène Langevin-Joliot is a nuclear physicist and causes of ww2 has made a close study of gold standard, Marie and Pierre Curie's notebooks so as to obtain a picture of how their collaboration functioned. Marie had opened up a completely new field of causes, research: radioactivity. Various aspects of it were being studied all over the world. Re Diplock? In Uppsala Daniel Strömholm, professor of chemistry, and The Svedberg, then associate professor, investigated the chemistry of the radioactive elements. In 1909 they were close to the discovery of isotopes. However it was the British physicist Frederick Soddy who in the following year, finally clarified the concept of isotopes. Marie's laboratory became the Mecca for radium research. Eva Ramstedt, who took a doctorate in physics in Uppsala in 1910, studied with Marie Curie in 1910-11 and was later associate professor in essay radiology at Stockholm University College in 1915-32. The Norwegian chemist Ellen Gleditsch worked with Marie Curie in 1907-1912.

When, in 1914, Marie was in the process of beginning to lead one of the departments in the Radium Institute established jointly by the University of Paris and the Pasteur Institute, the First World War broke out. Marie placed her two daughters, Irène aged 17 and Ève aged 10, in free gay ten safety in Brittany. She herself took a train to Bordeaux, a train overloaded with people leaving Paris for causes of ww2 essay a safer refuge. But Marie had a different reason for her journey. She had with her a heavy, 20-kg lead container in which she had placed her valuable radium. Once in why marijuana Bordeaux the other passengers rushed away to their various destinations. She remained standing there with her heavy bag which she did not have the strength to carry without assistance. Some official finally helped her find a room where she slept with her heavy bag by her bed. Of Ww2 Essay? The next day, having had the john hick, bag taken to a bank vault, she took a train back to Paris. It was now crowded to bursting point with soldiers.

Throughout the war she was engaged intensively in equipping more than 20 vans that acted as mobile field hospitals and about 200 fixed installations with X-ray apparatus. Marie driving one of the radiology cars in 1917. Marie Sklodowska Curie Museum. She trained young women in simple X-ray technology, she herself drove one of the vans and took an active part in locating metal splinters. Causes Of Ww2? Sometimes she found she had to give the doctors lessons in elementary geometry. System? Irène, when 18, became involved, and in the primitive conditions both of them were exposed to large doses of radiation. After the Peace Treaty in 1918, her Radium Institute, which had been completed in 1914, could now be opened. It became France's most internationally celebrated research institute in the inter-war years. Even so, as her French biographer Françoise Giroud points out, the French state did not do much in the way of causes of ww2 essay, supporting her.

In the USA radium was manufactured industrially but at a price which Marie could not afford. She had to of hypertension devote a lot of of ww2 essay, time to john hick fund-raising for her Institute. She also became deeply involved when she had become a member of the Commission for Intellectual Cooperation of the causes, League of free gay ten, Nations and served as its vice-president for a time. She frequently took part in its meetings in Geneva, where she also met the Swedish delegate, Anna Wicksell. Marie regularly refused all those who wanted to causes essay interview her.

However, a prominent American female journalist, Marie Maloney, known as Missy, who for a long time had admired Marie, managed to meet her. This meeting became of great importance to them both. John Hick? Marie told Missy that researchers in the USA had some 50 grams of radium at their disposal. And in France, then? asked Missy. My laboratory has scarcely more than one gram, was Marie's answer.

But you ought to causes essay have all the resources in the world to continue with your research. John Hick? Someone must see to that, Missy said. But who? was Marie's reply in a resigned tone. The women of of ww2, America, promised Missy. Missy, like Marie herself, had an enormous strength and strong inner stamina under a frail exterior.

She now arranged one of the largest and gold system most successful research-funding campaigns the of ww2, world has seen. First of all she got the New York papers to promise not to print a word on the Langevin affair and - so as to feel safe - unbelievably enough managed to free gay ten take over all their material on the Langevin affair. Due to the press, Marie became enormously popular in America, and everyone seemed to want to meet her - the great Madame Curie. Missy had to essay struggle hard to get Marie to accept a program for her visit on a par with the why marijuana is bad, campaign. Finally, she had to causes of ww2 essay turn to Paul Appell, now the pathology, university chancellor, to persuade Marie. In spite of her diffidence and distaste for publicity, Marie agreed to go to causes essay America to receive the gift - a single gram of radium - from the hand of President Warren Harding. Why Marijuana Is Bad? I understand that it will be of the greatest value for my Institute, she wrote to Missy.

When all this became known in France, the paper Je sais tout arranged a gala performance at the Paris Opera. Essay? It was attended by the most prominent personalities in France, including Aristide Briand, then Foreign Minister, who was later, in 1926, to receive the Nobel Peace Prize. Jean Perrin made a speech about Marie's contribution and the promises for the future that her discoveries gave. The great Sarah Bernhardt read an Ode to Madame Curie with allusions to pathology of hypertension her as the sister of Prometheus. After being dragged through the mud ten years before, she had become a modern Jeanne d'Arc. Missy Maloney, Irène, Marie and Ève Curie in the USA. Photo kindly provided by William Brown Maloney Papers, Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Columbia University, USA. Missy had undertaken that everything would be arranged to cause Marie the least possible effort. In spite of causes essay, this Marie had to free gay ten attend innumerable receptions and do a round of American universities. Outwardly the trip was one great triumphal procession.

She became the recipient of some twenty distinctions in the form of honorary doctorates, medals and membership in academies. Great crowds paid homage to her. But for Marie herself, this was torment. Where possible, she had her two daughters represent her. Marie and essay Missy became close friends. The inexhaustible Missy organized further collections for one gram of radium for an institute which Marie had helped found in pathology of hypertension Warsaw.

Marie's second journey to America ended only a few days before the great stock exchange crash in 1929. In the last ten years of her life, Marie had the joy of causes of ww2, seeing her daughter Irène and her son-in-law Frédéric Joliot do successful research in the laboratory. She lived to see their discovery of artificial radioactivity, but not to hear that they had been awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for it in 1935. Marie Curie died of leukemia on July 4, 1934. It is worth mentioning that the new discoveries at the end of the nineteenth century became of importance also for the breakthrough of of hypertension, modern art. Causes? X-ray photography focused art on the invisible. The human body became dissolved in john hick a shimmering mist. Wassily Kandinsky, one of the pioneers of causes essay, abstract painting, wrote about radioactivity in his autobiographical notes from 1901-13. He claimed that in his soul the decay of the john hick, atom was synonymous with the decay of the whole world. The thickest walls had suddenly collapsed. Everything had become uncertain, unsteady and fluid.

He would not have been surprised if a stone had been pulverized in the air before him and become invisible. For the physicists of causes of ww2 essay, Marie Curie's day, the new discoveries were no less revolutionary. Although admittedly the world did not decay, what nevertheless did was the classical, deterministic view of the world. Radioactive decay, that heat is given off from an invisible and apparently inexhaustible source, that radioactive elements are transformed into new elements just as in the ancient dreams of lyrics son, alchemists of the possibility of making gold, all these things contravened the most entrenched principles of classical physics. For radioactivity to be understood, the development of quantum mechanics was required. But it should be noted that the birth of quantum mechanics was not initiated by of ww2, the study of radioactivity but by Max Planck's study of radiation from a black body in 1900. It was an pathology of hypertension old field that was not the of ww2, object of the same interest and publicity as the new spectacular discoveries. It was not until 1928, more than a quarter of a century later, that the of hypertension, type of causes of ww2, radioactivity that is called alpha-decay obtained its theoretical explanation. It is an example of the tunnel effect in quantum mechanics.

Much has changed in the conditions under which researchers work since Marie and Pierre Curie worked in re diplock a drafty shed and refused to causes of ww2 essay consider taking out a patent as being incompatible with their view of the role of researchers; a patent would nevertheless have facilitated their research and spared their health. But in free gay ten one respect, the situation remains unchanged. Causes Of Ww2 Essay? Nature holds on just as hard to its really profound secrets, and it is just as difficult to predict where the answers to gold standard system fundamental questions are to be found. Appell, Paul (1855-1930), mathematician. Arrhenius, Svante (1859-1927), Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1903. Ayrton, Hertha (1854-1923), English physicist. Becquerel, Henri (1852-1908), Nobel Prize in Physics 1903. Borel, Émile (1871-1956), mathematician.

Borel, Marguerite, author, married to Émile Borel. Branly, Édouard (1844-1940), physicist. Briand, Aristide (1862-1932), eminent French statesman, Nobel Peace Prize 1926. Brillouin, Marcel (1854-1948), theoretical physicist. Darboux, Gaston (1842-1917), mathematician. Daudet, Léon (1867-1942), editor of L'Action Française. Debierne, André (1874-1949), Marie Curie's colleague for many years.

Einstein, Albert (1879-1955), Nobel Prize in causes of ww2 essay Physics 1921. Giroud, Françoise (1916- ), author, former minister. Gleditsch, Ellen (1879-1968), chemist. Hertz, Heinrich (1857-1894), physicist. Langevin, Paul (1872-1946), physicist. Lippmann, Gabriel (1845-1921), Nobel Prize in Physics 1908. Marconi, Guglielmo (1874-1937), Nobel Prize in Physics 1909. Mittag-Leffler, Gösta (1846-1927), mathematician. Moissan, Henri (1852-1907), Nobel Prize in free gay ten Chemistry 1906.

Ostwald, Wilhelm (1853-1932), Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1909. Painlevé, Paul (1863-1933), mathematician. Perrin, Jean (1870-1942) Nobel Prize in Physics 1926. Planck, Max (1858-1947), Nobel Prize in Physics 1918. Poincaré, Henri (1854-1912), mathematician, philosopher. Poincaré, Raymond (1860-1934), lawyer (president 1913-1920) Ramstedt, Eva (1879-1974), physicist. Rutherford, Ernest (1871-1937), Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1908. Soddy, Frederick (1877-1956), Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1921.

Strömholm, Daniel (1871-1961), chemist, professor at Uppsala University. Svedberg, The (1884-1971), Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1926. Bensuade-Vincent, Bernadette, Marie Curie, femme de science et de légende , Reveu du Palais de la découverte, Vol. 16. n 157 avril 1988, 15-30. Muzeum Marii Curie-Sklodowskiej. (Polskie Towarzystwo Chemiczne) 00-227 Warsawa, ul. Freta 16. tel: 48-22-31 80 92. fax: 48-22-31 13 04. Contact person: Malgorzata Sobieszczak-Marciniak.

* Originally delivered as a lecture at the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in Stockholm, Sweden, on February 28, 1996. Translation from Swedish to English by causes of ww2 essay, Nancy Marshall-Lundén. First published 1 December 1996. MLA style: Marie and Pierre Curie and the Discovery of Polonium and Radium. Nobelprize.org.

Nobel Media AB 2014. Web. 3 Oct 2017. http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/themes/physics/curie/ On 27 November 1895 Alfred Nobel signed his last will in Paris. Try to save some patients and learn about human blood types!

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Essay On Traffic Police Essays and Research Papers. Description Police officers are responsible for of ww2 essay enforcing the law in our society. A police officers typical day is usually . less exciting and less dangerous than how it is standard, portrayed on TV; most spend the majority of their time either patrolling neighbourhoods or on traffic duty. Officers patrol areas on foot, motorcycle, bicycle, or in a police car. This allows them to of ww2, accomplish a variety of objectives: discourage crime through their high visibility, maintain community relations by speaking. Constable , Crime , Criminal Investigation Department 1013 Words | 4 Pages. Enhancing traffic police performance in Egypt. Vision My vision is that of a public service ( traffic police ) with a performance culture, client-focused (Public) and results . oriented (more organized economy) and to decide and examine its current performance in terms of efficiency and effectiveness, and lyrics son according to the current performance situation, we will try to determine the factors that leads to this situation and also the means to recover or maintain such situation. Where are we now? Many pubic servants are unclear about what the overall.

Constable , Driver's license , Driving 1670 Words | 6 Pages. Home Recreation Tour Travel Question i want a essay on traffic rules Asked in Travel at 4:44 PM on December 31, . 2007 Tags: essay , traffic , rules ! This question is closed Report abuse silpa silpa Profile | QA Rate this : 10 Write your answer here. And keep checking whether it's been chosen as the Best Answer. * Enter Answer Please enter answer before submitting. Your mail ID: Enter your email * We don't SPAM your inbox Help us avoid Spam: refresh image Enter characters. Freeway , India , Pedestrian 565 Words | 3 Pages. ?Meaghan Loving Ethics in Criminal Justice Police Corruption Essay Police Corruption can be defined as a form of . Of Ww2 Essay? police misconduct in which law enforcement officers break their social contract and lyrics fortunate abuse their power for personal or department gain. There are three forms of police corruption.

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The main purposes of these agencies are too investigate of suspected criminal activity, referral of the pathology, results of investigations to the courts, and the temporary detention of suspected criminals pending judicial action. Law. Constable , Federal Bureau of Investigation , Law enforcement agency 1414 Words | 4 Pages. ? POLICE : HISTORY Throughout the history of civilization, societies have sought protection for causes their members and possessions. In early . civilizations, members of one's family provided this protection. Richard Lundman has suggested that the development of formal policing resulted from lyrics fortunate a process of causes of ww2 essay three developmental stages. Gold Standard? The first stage involves informal policing, where all members of a society share equally in the responsibility for providing protection and keeping order. The second stage, transitional. Constable , Crime , Crime prevention 1136 Words | 3 Pages.

105 Police Misconduct What is police misconduct? It can be defined as any action performed by a law enforcement officer . that is unethical by established employment guidelines, unconstitutional, or a crime with in itself. When people hear the term police misconduct they automatically think of a police officer using unnecessary force against a civilian. While that is a form of police misconduct it is not only form. Throughout this paper I will bring light to the many types of causes of ww2 police misconduct. Constable , Human sexual behavior , Law 1036 Words | 6 Pages. Police Corruption Casey Jo Bowersox DeVry University Police Corruption The term police corruption is . defined as the abuse of pathology of hypertension police authority for causes of ww2 personal gain or to gain advantage for the police organization. Police corruption can take the form of a variety of criminal activities ranging from actual commission of serious criminal (i.e. drug trafficking and why marijuana money laundering) to the instances where police will look the other way when a person commits a minor everyday violation of the law. Bill Clinton , Discrimination , Equal Employment Opportunity Commission 1752 Words | 5 Pages. Association of Chief Police Officers Essay. role in the maintenance of high standard police work.

To aid an officer in effective delivery of policing the National Decision Model [NDM] . (2012) is used. At the center of the six key elements in the NDM, are the statement of mission and values, which play a big part in delivering effective and a high standard of police work. This essay will look at of ww2 essay, good and bad examples of john hick police work and will focus on causes integrity and re diplock police use of force. Causes Of Ww2 Essay? Also the police response to criticism and their willingness. Constable , Hillsborough Disaster , Hillsborough Stadium 1552 Words | 8 Pages.

Traffic jam in john hick, Dhaka Metropolitan City is causes essay, spiraling day-by-day defying all efforts of son keeping this menace under control. Causes Essay? Learned experts on . this subject have so far suggested various measures, but results are not encouraging. Some have blamed railway level crossings for free gay ten interruption to free flow of road traffic during passage of trains, and have suggested shifting of Dhaka Railway Station from Kamalapur to Tongi or Gazipur. Causes Of Ww2 Essay? Such a proposal needs to be examined in john hick, details and then come to a conclusion. Commuter rail , Locomotive , Multiple unit 991 Words | 3 Pages. Police Departments, their Functions and of ww2 Roles There is no doubt that terrorism is providing an why marijuana, impulsion for the various law enforcement . agencies (Terry and Grant, 2012). These terrorism activities have made the organization restructure and increase their cross-agency information globally. The police deliver their services to causes of ww2 essay, the public using organizations (Walker and Katz, 2011). The quality and free gay ten efficiency of the policing depend on causes essay the organization and management of the john hick, departments. Various critics. Constable , Gendarmerie , Law enforcement 1087 Words | 3 Pages.

Lesson 4 Project Officers Report On January 11, 2003 at 9:08 am ET. I received a phone call from Jane Doe who said her and her daughter, Jane Doe 2, would . like to come down to causes essay, the station and have a privet talk with a police officer as soon as possible. I said No problem. She stated she would be right down. Around 4:26 ET.

Jane Doe and john hick little Jane Doe 2 arrived at the station. I took them back to of ww2, my office and asked, What was wrong? Jane Doe began by talking about free gay ten her husband has been molesting. Child sexual abuse , John Doe , Placeholder name 1684 Words | 4 Pages. Police OperationsShantia EzekielCJA214October 22, 2014 Ryan CarabelloPolice OperationsPolice officers have a daunting task of protecting and . serving the community. This responsibility comes with many task and aspects. Of Ww2 Essay? Some of the critical aspects of policing are, capturing suspects which hopefully involves non-lethal tactics more often than not, a very technological side of re diplock police actions, protecting people from threats foreign and domestic, and the danger that comes from all of causes it. Josh Stone. Constable , CS gas , Less-lethal weapon 1225 Words | 2 Pages.

[pic] A research Report on Traffic problems in free gay ten, Big Cities (Islamabad) [pic] By: Aqsa Shahzadi (100827) Basharat Jamil (100811) Kaneez . Amna (100869) Sidra Tul Muntaha (100809) Hamza Ashraf (100803) Submitted to: Mr. Of Ww2 Essay? Naveed Ahsan Business communication BBA-3B [pic] Air University Islamabad [pic] Table of Content Contents Page No 1. Introduction 3 1.1 Core issue: 3 1.2 Purpose: 3 1.3 Scope 3 . Arterial road , Intelligent transportation system , Islamabad 1077 Words | 7 Pages. AT A GLANCE: Police Officer William L. Potts of Detroit, Michigan, decided to do something about the problem caused by the ever increasing . Fortunate? number of automobiles on the streets. What he had in mind was figuring out a way to adapt railroad signals for causes essay street use. Potts used red, amber, and gold standard green railroad lights and about thirty-seven dollars worth of wire and electrical controls to make the worlds first 4-way three color traffic light. It was installed in 1920 on the corner of Woodward and Michigan. Green , Pedestrian crossing , Traffic 600 Words | 3 Pages. them have a process to how a trail starts from beginning to of ww2, end.

Lets take a look on how the re diplock, criminal trial process beings. Before entering into the . Causes Essay? court room depending on the specific facts of the case, the john hick, first step is to causes, make an arrest. If police have probable cause a set of facts and circumstances that is led to re diplock, believe a particular person has committed a crime. (Schmalleger,2012,p.397) they will go ahead and make an arrest. After and arrest has been made, the suspect or the accused must. Crime , Criminal law , Grand jury 2201 Words | 6 Pages.

research and find out what a teachers job was about, but then I looked it up and realize that I was just joking to myself. Causes? Going on into middle and high . Fortunate Son? school I was still confused on what I wanted to causes, be, until I went down to re diplock, a police academy and seen what was being done. These police officers were very serious about their job and causes of ww2 their motives were to keep the system, crime out and causes essay put the good in people that were willing to change or comprehend on things. They werent here to son, just be here and causes of ww2 look cute with a. 2008 singles , Constable , Motivation 1116 Words | 3 Pages. Police bruality essay for college class i guess. Police Brutality Police brutality occurs daily across America. Police brutality can come in various forms, . counting lethal and nonlethal force. Comprehending the exact commonness of police brutality is standard system, complex, because of the of ww2, inconsistency in describing police brutality. The trouble in differentiating among justified and unjustified force.

Police interactions often can be misconstrued, or sometimes turned around against an officer. Questionable behavior and complaints against officers can be filed. Crime , Law enforcement agency powers , Mass media 1353 Words | 5 Pages. Police Department Organization CJA 214 . John Hick? Police Department Organization There are three different types of police departments they individually have their own jurisdictions nonetheless their structure is very similar. For bigger departments the structure is going to be more in of ww2, depth mainly because of all the. California Highway Patrol , Constable , Drug Enforcement Administration 825 Words | 3 Pages. Undiscplined Traffic User Behavior In Jakarta, or Big Cities In Indonesia. ?Thesis statement: I believe that the main problem of the re diplock, lack of conformity in traffic behavior especially in big cities like Jakarta are not . mainly caused by of ww2, the user, but more into the lack of law enforcement and re diplock ignorant behavior of our government to disciplined motorized user. ESSAY The common but severe behavior of causes essay road user in Jakarta and other big cities has escalated into a serious manner, it has led to such dangerous extent in which there even a case where underage driver cause tragic. Freeway , Motorway , Pedestrian 992 Words | 3 Pages. Traffic congestion is one of the re diplock, main problems in big cities like London, New York, Copenhagen, and Delhi.

The primary causes of it are high . population and causes of ww2 movement of people. With progress in engineering, humanity invents many initiatives to solve this problem. One of the that is public transport area, particularly Metro. The Metro is an gold standard system, underground railway system of the city. According to Business Traveler (2012) the oldest subway was built in London in 1836 and to essay, date the standard system, London Metro is essay, the. Commuter rail , London Underground , New York City 954 Words | 3 Pages. In this paper, I will be writing about Police Discretion. I will start by defining Police Discretion then briefly discuss the . use in domestic disturbances, minor misdemeanors, and traffic enforcement. I will also discuss the application of police discretion, the provisions it uses and free gay ten how it is currently practiced. At the causes of ww2, end of these brief descriptions, I will then present the myth that exists in regards to lyrics fortunate, police discretion. And finally, I will end this paper with my personal opinion as well.

Constable , Crime , Misdemeanor 833 Words | 3 Pages. MUMBAI TRAFFIC POLICE TRAFFIC MANUAL Map of essay Mumbai Police Commissionerate :- FACTS . FIGURE :Facts Figures Area Population (2001 Census) Vehicle Population ( March 2007) Road Length Vehicles per km Road Length 437.71 Sq. Km (Excluding National Park) 1.19 Crore 15.03 Lac 1941 Km 717 per Km Enforcement Statistics HEADS No. of john hick cases No. of Vehicles Towed Action against Parking Violations ompounding Charges / fine recovered Action of suspension of of ww2 essay M.D.L Taxi Auto Rickshaw Total 1495. Bandra , Constable , Mumbai 11321 Words | 35 Pages. ?1. Gold Standard System? In 2010, a traffic jam on a highway near Beijing kept cars stuck in traffic for more than a week (9-12 days according to . different sources). The traffic jam itself went on for 97 kilometers. The locals sold food and water to the drivers for prices that were 10 and more times higher than normal. Cities like New York, London, and Paris have all had to causes essay, deal with thousands of lyrics cars running through their streets each day.

Traffic congestion is a big problem for everyone within the city. The main reasons. Arterial road , Automobile , Congestion pricing 805 Words | 2 Pages. Running head: POLICE DISCRETION Police Discretion CJA/342 University Of Phoenix Police Discretion . Police discretion is an important tool in police work due to the law sometimes being too vague or ambiguous. Causes? Police officers are trained on different scenarios that one may come across while they are at the academy. The problem tends to john hick, arise when a police officer comes across a situation that they were not trained for, and since the academy cannot cover every possible scenario that. Abuse , Assault , Crime 1370 Words | 4 Pages. Police Functions Examine the various perspectives of the policing functions from the local, state, and federal organizational levels. Causes? . Federal agencies such as the free gay ten, Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) not only operate across the entire nation, but the causes of ww2, agency also has agents serving abroad.

In addition to re diplock, this, the FBI is not a police agency, but an of ww2 essay, agency with jurisdiction to investigate any and all matters in free gay ten, which the United States is, or maybe an interested party (The Scope of causes Present. Constable , Federal Bureau of Investigation , Jurisdiction 1322 Words | 5 Pages. establishment of a Police out-post in gold standard system, 1661. In 1669 East India Company was given Bombay Island from king Charles II. who had acquired it . when marrying a Portuguese princess a few years before. The origins of the causes, present day Mumbai police can be traced back to a militia organised by Gerald Aungier, the why marijuana, then Governor of causes essay Mumbai in 1669. This Bhandari Militia was composed of around 500 men and was head quartered at Mahim, Sewree and Sion. In 1672, the judicial overview of police decisions by courts.

Constable , History of Mumbai , Inspector 907 Words | 3 Pages. of Police CJA 204 Introduction to Police Theory and Practices The History of Police Police . practices have been around for free gay ten many years. There have been a lot of of ww2 changes since the free gay ten, early 1600s, when it started, and now. Essay? Used to be a requirement with no training or pay for this type of duty. Re Diplock? Now in the 21st century you can make a career out of being a part of the police department. Around the 1630s during Colonial America there was no such thing as a criminal investigation for the police . Of Ww2 Essay? The.

Constable , Crime , Crime prevention 878 Words | 3 Pages. The public police have to fulfil many roles, what tensions can this create?DRAFT. Free Gay Ten? This essay will look at how the public . police officers within the UK have to fulfil many roles and the tensions of which these can create. To define the term Police in simplistic terms is The arrangements made in of ww2 essay, all civilised countries to ensure that the inhabitants keep the peace and obey the law the free gay ten, force of of ww2 peace officers (or Police ) employed for re diplock this purpose. (Metropolitan police 2011). Causes Essay? Police officers in. Constable , Crime , Crime prevention 1099 Words | 3 Pages. force by police so disturbing? Are the police using more force? With so much going on in the media, the public is more terrified . of the police . Many are not comfortable with calling up Law Enforcement. Many feel police officers abuse their authority. It seems as if theyre abusing their authority as police officers.

In many situations claiming self-defense. Young teens and children being gunned down by free gay ten, law enforcement. Many afraid to call upon law enforcement, afraid of their own safety. Police officers. Abuse , Contempt of cop , Crime 1660 Words | 6 Pages. ? Traffic in the cities. Evaluation Argument Essay A paper submitted to Webber International University In partial . fulfillment for the Bachelor of Science degree in Management.

By: Miguel Zapatero Date: March 20, 2013 Course: ENG1113 Semester: Spring 2013 Instructor: Dr. Pat Nickell Paper: 4 During these holidays we have in the spring, spring break, I made a road trip with my friends through several cities and states of the of ww2 essay, U.S. John Hick? coast. Automobile , Congestion pricing , Intelligent transportation system 798 Words | 3 Pages. The traffic can be a nightmare for causes essay visitors to Viet Nam for free gay ten the first time. Believe it or not, there are transport rules but people don't seem . really interested in following them.

Three or four people on causes one motor bike is a common sight, particularly with the young and young families. The traffic is why marijuana is bad, worst during the rush hour when everyone is attempting to get to work or get home quickly. Some people ride their motorbikes on the pavement rather than waiting in the a traffic jam. The people walking. French Indochina , Ho Chi Minh , Ho Chi Minh City 920 Words | 3 Pages. ?CAUSES OF TRAFFIC JAM: Traffic jam is very hard to tell about the causes of of ww2 essay jam in gold system, Dhaka as it does not follow any pattern.

It . is a common practice in of ww2, Dhaka to blame rickshaws as the only reason for creating traffic congestion. But in reality there are several of reasons behind this problem. Gold Standard? Effective reasons include: Significant increase in population and causes essay also in all types of vehicles All of the major export oriented Industries, corporate offices, significant number of Export Promotion Zones. Mexico City , New York City , Park and ride 883 Words | 3 Pages. friends after seeing the movie Ocean's 11. She made it only john hick a few short blocks when Sarah noticed several blue lights in her rearview mirror; a . Essay? police stop was taking place behind her. Sarah continued down the speed-bumped road only to find several police Stop Sticks were deployed in is bad, her lane of travel. When she saw only one police car and of ww2 no police officer, fear struck her. Less than 30 seconds later she was dead. She was hit from behind by a car that was traveling over 70 MPH. Worse yet, the.

Constable , Crime , Infraction 953 Words | 3 Pages. Police and Negligence and Liability. Police Negligence and Liability 1 Running Head: Police Neglect/Liability Police Negligence . and Liability Police Negligence and Liability 2 Abstract The purpose of this paper is to examine factors involved in police negligence and the extent of liability the officers hold. Are police officers held accountable for their misjudgments or reckless behavior when they are at fault? This paper exams relevant cases in which police officers have been. Common law , Constable , Law 1616 Words | 5 Pages.

Police Discretion Police Discretion Discretion is defined by the Merriam-Webster Dictionary as the ability to make . responsible decisions, individual choice or judgment, power of free decision or latitude of choice within certain legal bounds. In law enforcement discretion is john hick, left up to essay, each individual officer on the field everyday. Police officers are given the john hick, authority to essay, make reasonable and standard system responsible decisions out in the field. Discretion is used in many situations, such as when. Constable , Decision making , Decision making software 1764 Words | 5 Pages. The traffic light is one of numerous leading aspects in our lives that we dont appreciate anymore. The literal definition of the of ww2 essay, . traffic light is a signal that uses red, green, and amber lights to of hypertension, control traffic . The traffic light is a lifesaving invention in the eyes of many people ever since 1868, when it was developed. Causes Of Ww2 Essay? Who would have predicted that a light could save multiple lives and prevent major accidents from occurring? The traffic light has transformed drastically over time. Currently.

Green , J. P. Knight , Lester Wire 860 Words | 3 Pages. A police officer's duty is to maintain public order, preventing, and free gay ten detecting crime. The concept of police officers, also known . as cops, and law enforcement has been around ever since the ancient Romans had a theory that an organization of peacekeepers would reduce the crime and violence being committed. This theory stuck with society and is still around today. People of law enforcement have a mission when they step into their police car, that mission is to enforce the rules of conduct or law.

Academic degree , Associate's degree , Bachelor's degree 1867 Words | 5 Pages. Jakarta faces a number of problems as it develops. Of Ww2? They include traffic congestion, flooding, waste disposal and ensuring a supply of clean . water to fortunate, Jakartas inhabitants. How serious are these problems? Will you want to live in Jakarta in 2025? Jakarta, the of ww2, capital city of Indonesia has suffered many problems for decades. Recent years have seen increasing concern about some problems in Jakarta. The major problems are traffic congestion, flooding, waste disposal and ensuring a supply of lyrics fortunate son clean.

Congestion pricing , Jakarta , Metropolitan area 1547 Words | 4 Pages. | Ethics in Pakistan Police | | | Group Members * Sumeet kumar Parwani (1246133) * Faizan Abdul Rahim (1246108) * Vikash Kumar . (1246139) * Hanesh Kumar(1146110) * Syed Danial Haider(1266119) * Abdul Samad Hussain(1246102) * Zeeshan(1166111) * Rameez Murtaza Abbasi(1166118) * Abrar ahmed khan (1011206) * Sakeena Haider Naqvi (1244343) * Waqas jokhio (1166122) | | Submitted To . Community policing , Constable , Crime 1571 Words | 5 Pages. The Palisades Interstate Parkway Police Department is causes, a small police department in free gay ten, New Jersey, just west of the Hudson River. It . has less than 3o officers who patrol an 11-mile stretch of the causes essay, Palisades Interstate Parkway. In 2010, a PIPPD officer named Vincent Roberson had a sexual relationship with Gail Lawrence. The majority of their involvement was conducted while Officer Roberson was on duty. Over the next year, there would be complaints filed, allegations, and an ultimate forced resignation. Constable , Ethics , Human sexual behavior 757 Words | 3 Pages. ?Social Media Marketing Note On Smo Marketing Essay Social Media Optimization can be defined as a process of achieving Marketing Communication . and Branding goals through the use of john hick various Social Media Websites.

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Officers generally do most of the routine traffic stops and of ww2 essay grunt work, while the higher up the ladder the more influential the work is inside the department. The Sergeants also sometimes are in the public doing routine grunt work, but are usually strictly in the department stations. Chiefs seldom become involved in low level policing, staying. 2002 albums , Constable , Fixing Broken Windows 418 Words | 2 Pages. Police Encounter Matthew A Loos Kaplan University CJ227: Criminal Procedure Unit 2 Assignment July 15, 2013 Officer Smith, in my . opinion, had reasonable suspicion to conduct a traffic stop on the female driver the gold, night in question. According to (Lasker, 2012), In People v. Essay? Hackett, 2012 IL 111781, a unanimous supreme court overturned the appellate and is bad trial court decisions and remanded the case for a trial based on evidence stemming from what the court held to be a justified investigatory. Fourth Amendment to causes essay, the United States Constitution , Jury , Probable cause 940 Words | 3 Pages. Urban Environment Traffic congestion in cities is a problem throughout the world. Evaluate the effectiveness of one official initiative . Standard System? undertaken to tackle this issue. Essay? Traffic congestion has become one of the standard system, serious issues globally due to the rise in traffic demand. As a result of of ww2 essay ineffectiveness of why marijuana existing devices and methods in reduction of bottlenecks, it is more obvious to discover new strategies rather than constructing new alternatives and expansion in causes of ww2 essay, public transportation infrastructure.

Congestion pricing , Electronic toll collection , Road pricing 1302 Words | 4 Pages. Police Corruption Second Essay for AJ 101 Krystal Lamas Victor Valley Community College Author Note This paper was . prepared for AJ 101 for Mr. Ronald M. Field .M.A. Abstract Police corruption is a complex issue. Police corruption or the gold standard system, abuse of authority by causes essay, a police officer, acting officially to fulfill personal needs or wants, is a growing problem in the United States today. Things such as an Internal Affairs department, a strong leadership organization, and community support are just. Constable , Corruption , Crime 957 Words | 3 Pages. out for a child, running on road. Re Diplock? Watch out for a animal on road. Watch out for a speed breaker. Exercise tolerance, respect other's . Of Ww2 Essay? rights. Overtake with caution and care. A motorbike is for two, not for too many. Traffic rules are life saving tools. Break should be perfect. Don't drive if feeling dizzy, or sleepy. Clean the windscreen before driving. Use the mirrors for rear or side view. Son? They are your third eye. Causes Of Ww2? Watch the rear before. Automobile safety , Driving , Fog 891 Words | 4 Pages.

The Role of Police . People depend on police officers and detectives to protect their lives and property. John Hick? Law enforcement . officers, some of whom are State or Federal special agents or inspectors, perform these duties in a variety of ways, depending on of ww2 the size and type of their organization. In most jurisdictions, they are expected to standard, exercise authority when necessary, whether on or off duty. Police officers have general law enforcement duties, including maintaining regular patrols and responding. Constable , Crime , Criminal justice 2113 Words | 6 Pages. ?Lucy Sanchez English 1302 Mr. Gonzalez 8 April 2009 Police Brutality Draft Who can forget the Los Angeles riots and the Rodney King . beating in 1991? This case of police brutality was the most widely known.

Over the years, it seems that police abuse remains one of the most serious human rights violations in the United States. It makes the people wonder if in fact police officers are doing their job and if they are here to protect us. Causes? Police officers get away with unjustified shootings, fatal choking. Chicago Police Department , Constable , Criminal justice 1314 Words | 4 Pages. criminal and noncriminal events (Boivin ump; Cordeau, 2011). Every police officer has a great deal of discretion concerning when to use their . authority, power, persuasion, or force. Is Bad? Depending on causes how an why marijuana, officer sees their duty to society will determine an officers discretion. Essay? Discretion leads to selective enforcement practices and why marijuana is bad may result in essay, discrimination against certain groups of why marijuana is bad people or select individuals (Young, 2011).

Most police officer discretion is essay, exercised in situational situations with. Chicago Police Department , Constable , Crime 2121 Words | 6 Pages. Police Department Organization Paper What if the lyrics son, structure of police organizations is shaped by factors beyond easy human . contrivance, such as the size and age of the force, the degree of stability in the political environment, the complexity of governmental regulation, the geographical dispersion of the population, or the nature of causes essay police work itself (Maguire 2003)? * In this paper I will describe in detail various types of police agencies at the local, state, and son federal level and how. Constable , Criminal Investigation Department , Federal government of the United States 957 Words | 3 Pages. ? Police Culture in the United States Norris R. Causes Of Ww2? Billingsley, Richard Reynolds, Norris R. Why Marijuana? Billingsley CJA 214 December 27, 2013 . Causes Of Ww2? Yolonda Johnson Introduction Policing, is an fortunate son, occupation described as hours of boredom, followed by extreme moments of fear and terror, with coffee and of ww2 essay donuts thrown into system, the mix at times. It is also a culture perceived by the public as corrupt, aggressive, racist, and above the law which empowers them. In an occupation where these extremes exist, it is. Constable , Crime , Criminal justice 1427 Words | 4 Pages.

Luz Puentes 04/24/13 Policing Police patrolling I picked police patrolling for the simple fact they are as important as . any other cop in the field. Patrol remains the backbone of police operations. It consumes most of the resources of police agencies. Causes Of Ww2 Essay? On patrol, a police officer makes regular circuits or passes through a specific area called a beat. Officers sometimes patrol on foot but usually ride in cars.

The main advantage of car patrol over john hick, foot patrol is increased efficiency of coverage. Constable , Crime , Criminal justice 1260 Words | 4 Pages. History of causes essay Police September 05, 2013 Throughout this essay the writer will be discussing the history of the john hick, . police . Describing the of ww2, impact that a gentleman named Sir Robert Peel had on free gay ten American policing. A look at the relationship between the U.S. government and the policing organizations throughout the United States. Lastly how these relationships may affect police practices today. As we begin lets first get an essay, understanding for what a police organization is standard system, defined as. Causes Essay? The police are a constituted. Constable , Law enforcement , Law enforcement agency 1188 Words | 4 Pages. Police Discretion David Gonzalez University of Phoenix Introduction to is bad, Policing CJA/370 Professor John W. Feltgen June 23, 2005 . Abstract In this paper I will discuss police discretion and the use of these discretionary powers in the law enforcement workplace. I will explore the mythical aspects of police discretionary powers and the source of this myth.

I will further discuss the control of discretionary authority. I will name instances of law enforcement officials using their discretionary. Alien , Constable , Discretion 1541 Words | 4 Pages. Police Department Role And Functions. ? Police Department Roles and Functions Shontay Manigault CJA/214 1/11/2015 Kevin Marshall Police Department Roles and . Functions There are many various functions of police agencies. Patron, traffic , juvenile services, intelligence and undercover, and special operations are just some of the various functions of police agencies. There are many differences between the of ww2, functions of the police agencies and the federal, state, and free gay ten the local levels.

There are reasons of why you need to have various. Constable , Crime , Federal Bureau of Investigation 1172 Words | 6 Pages. History of Police History of Police The role of essay police officers is very significant to American history. Lyrics Son? . Police work toward protecting citizens rights and helping America become the land of the of ww2 essay, free. The United States of America is built from the U.S. Constitution Bill of Rights and police play a major role in making sure American rights are met. System? Evolution has changed many of American history for the better; policing is part of those changes. As new issues in society arise, police must change. Constable , Crime , Federal Bureau of Investigation 1256 Words | 4 Pages.

Composition 1 Argumentative Research Essay Final Draft. Police Brutality Police work is dangerous. Causes? . Sometimes police put in situations that excessive force is needed. But, because some officers use these extreme measures in free gay ten, situations when it is not, police brutality occurs. Causes Of Ww2? I believe Police brutality needs to be addressed, because it affects every one of us within our society. How can we trust the Police officers who sworn to serve the public when they use such excessive force that results.

Chicago Police Department , Constable , Police 1383 Words | 4 Pages.