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boltzmon book report A Kyria Abrahams: I'm Perfect, You’re Doomed Douglas Adams: Last Chance to a raisin lorraine, See Douglas Adams: The Long Dark Tea-Time of the Soul Dahlia Adler: Under the computer Lights Becky Albertalli: Simon vs. the a raisin hansberry Homo Sapiens Agenda Dante Alighieri: The Paradiso Dante Alighieri: The Purgatorio Hans Christian Andersen: The Complete Hans Christian Andersen Fairy Tales Maya Angelou: I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings Piers Anthony: On a Pale Horse Jane Austen: Emma. Norton! B K.A. A Raisin Sun By! Barson: 45 Pounds Ambrose Bierce: The Unabridged Devil's Dictionary Francesca Lia Block: The Island of pressure Excess Love Francesca Lia Block: Love in a raisin in the sun by lorraine, the Time of Global Warming Francesca Lia Block: Roses Bones Francesca Lia Block: Teen Spirit Chris Bohjalian: Midwives Lori Bongiorno: Green, Greener, Greenest: A Practical Guide to Making Eco-Smart Choices a Part of burnt ts eliot Your Life Robin Brande: Evolution, Me Other Freaks of Nature Ann Brashares: Forever in sun by lorraine, Blue: The Fourth Summer of the Sisterhood Ann Brashares: The Last Summer (Of You and summary Me) Ann Brashares: Sisterhood Everlasting Ann Brashares: 3 Willows: The Sisterhood Grows Steve Brezenoff: Guy in a raisin lorraine hansberry, Real Life Allie Brosh: Solutions and computer memory Other Problems Bill Bryson: A Short History of a raisin in the sun by hansberry Nearly Everything Pearl S. Of Outsider! Buck: The Good Earth Raymond Buckland: Buckland's Complete Book Of Witchcraft Zsuzsanna E. Budapest: The Grandmother of sun by Time: A Woman's Book of Celebrations, Spells, and Sacred Objects for Every Month of the memory types Year Lois McMaster Bujold: The Spirit Ring Eve Bunting: The Hideout Anthony Burgess: A Clockwork Orange Octavia E. Butler: Kindred Octavia E. In The Hansberry! Butler: Survivor Octavia E. Computer Memory Types! Butler: Unexpected Stories. Laurie Cabot: Celebrate the Earth Laurie Cabot Jean Mills: The Witch in Every Woman Peter Cameron: Someday This Pain Will Be Useful to a raisin sun by lorraine, You Albert Camus: The Fall Albert Camus: The Plague Albert Camus: The Stranger June Casagrande: Grammar Snobs Are Great Big Meanies: A Guide to nixon's, Language for a raisin in the lorraine hansberry, Fun and computer types Spite Kristin Chenoweth Joni Rodgers: A Little Bit Wicked Tom Clancy: Red Storm Rising/The Hunt for Red October Eoin Colfer: Artemis Fowl: The Arctic Incident: Graphic Novel Eoin Colfer: Artemis Fowl: The Eternity Code: Graphic Novel Eoin Colfer: Imaginary Fred Eoin Colfer: Screwed Eoin Colfer: Plugged Eoin Colfer: W.A.R.P. Books 1 through 3 Andr Comte-Sponville: The Little Book of in the sun by hansberry Atheist Spirituality D.J. Nixon's! Conway: Celtic Magic Robert Cormier: The Chocolate War Eireann Corrigan: Ordinary Ghosts Douglas Coupland: Microserfs Bruce Coville: Is Your Teacher an a raisin in the sun by hansberry, Alien? Bruce Coville: My Teacher Glows in types, the Dark Bruce Coville: My Teacher Flunked the Planet Andrea Cremer David Levithan: Invisibility Kerr Cuhulain: The Law Enforcement Guide To Wicca. Roald Dahl: The BFG Charlotte Davis Jo Thornely: Air Kiss Tell Richard Dawkins: The Blind Watchmaker Richard Dawkins: A Devil's Chaplain: Reflections on Hope, Lies, Science, and in the lorraine Love Richard Dawkins: The Selfish Gene Richard Dawkins: Unweaving the Rainbow Antoine de Saint-Exupry: The Little Prince Daniel Dennett: Breaking the Spell: Religion as a Natural Phenomenon Philip K. Dick: Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? Charles Dickens: David Copperfield Michael Dante DiMartino Bryan Konietzko: Avatar: North and a taste of honey characters South Parts 1–3 Michael Dante DiMartino: Legend of Korra: Turf Wars Fyodor Dostoevsky: Crime and Punishment Lloyd C. Douglas: Magnificent Obsession Charles Duhigg: The Power of Habit Diane Duane: Games Wizards Play Diane Duane: Interim Errantry Lois Duncan: Trapped: Cages of Mind and a raisin sun by lorraine hansberry Body Katherine Dunn: Attic Katherine Dunn: Truck Corinne Duyvis: Otherbound.

Ophira Edut: Adios, Barbie: Young Women Write About Body Image and computer memory Identity Hazel Edwards Ryan Kennedy: f2m: the a raisin sun by boy within Barbara Ehrenreich: Bait and Switch: The (Futile) Pursuit of the Advantages Essay American Dream Barbara Ehrenreich: For Her Own Good: Two Centuries of the sun by Experts Advice to nixon's vietnamization, Women Amy Ehrlich: When I Was Your Age, Volume One: Original Stories About Growing Up Danielle Evans: Before You Suffocate Your Own Fool Self. John Fairweather: Border Crossings J.C. In The Sun By Lorraine! Fann: Blood of a taste of honey Our Own Sara Farizan: Tell Me Again How a Crush Should Feel Richard Feynman: Surely You're Joking, Mr. A Raisin Lorraine Hansberry! Feynman! Ed Fitch: Grimoire Of Shadows: Witchcraft, Paganism, Magick. Arterial! Neil Gaiman: M Is for Magic Neil Gaiman: Anansi Boys Neil Gaiman: Fragile Things: Short Fictions and Wonders Neil Gaiman: The Graveyard Book Neil Gaiman: The Ocean at a raisin sun by lorraine the End of the Lane Neil Gaiman: The Sleeper and the Spindle Neil Gaiman: Trigger Warning Shakti Gawain: Creative Visualization: Use the Power of Your Imagination to Create What You Want in Your Life Madeleine George: The Difference Between You and Me Carolyn Ives Gilman: Halfway Human M-E Girard: Girl Mans Up Rachel Gold: Being Emily Laura Goode: Sister Mischief Steven Gould: Exo Steven Gould: Impulse Steven Gould: Reflex John Green: Looking for summary of outsider, Alaska Marian Green: A Witch Alone, New Edition: Thirteen Moons to Master Natural Magic Ruth Hurmence Green: The Born Again Skeptic's Guide to in the lorraine hansberry, the Bible Brian Greene: The Elegant Universe: Superstrings, Hidden Dimensions, and the Quest for the Ultimate Theory Lev Grossman: The Magicians Matthew Guerruckey: Drunk Monkeys Anthology: Volume 3. Mark Haddon: The Curious Incident of the Advantages Dog in the Night-time Kristin Hahn: In Search of a raisin in the sun by hansberry Grace Shannon Hale: The Forgotten Sisters (Princess Academy #3) Shannon Hale: Midnight in a taste, Austenland Shannon Hale: The Princess in sun by, Black Edith Hamilton: Mythology Daniel Handler: Adverbs Daniel Handler: The Basic Eight Daniel Handler: Watch Your Mouth Daniel Handler: How to ts eliot, Dress for a raisin in the sun by lorraine, Every Occasion by the Pope Daniel Handler: Why We Broke Up Sam Harris: Free Will Sam Harris: Lying Sam Harris: The Moral Landscape Sue Harrison: Song of the River Brent Hartinger: Geography Club Chris Hastings: The Unbelievable Gwenpool: Believe It Chris Hastings: The Unbelievable Gwenpool: Head of of outsider M.O.D.O.K. Stephen Hawking: Black Holes and sun by lorraine Baby Universes and a taste Other Essays Stephen Hawking: The Universe in in the sun by lorraine hansberry, a Nutshell Robert Heinlein: The Cat Who Walks Through Walls Robert Heinlein: The Unpleasant Profession of of outsider Jonathan Hoag Joseph Heller: Closing Time Joseph Heller: God Knows Joseph Heller: Good As Gold Joseph Heller: Portrait of an Artist, as an Old Man Joseph Heller: Something Happened Bobby Henderson: The Gospel of the Flying Spaghetti Monster Hermann Hesse: Siddhartha Carl Hiaasen: Chomp Carl Hiaasen: Dance of the a raisin in the hansberry Reptiles Carl Hiaasen: Double Whammy Carl Hiaasen: Kick Ass: Selected Columns of Carl Hiaasen Carl Hiaasen: Native Tongue Carl Hiaasen: Nature Girl Carl Hiaasen: Paradise Screwed: Selected Columns of norton Carl Hiaasen Carl Hiaasen: Sick Puppy Carl Hiaasen: Skin Tight Carl Hiaasen: Star Island Carl Hiaasen: Strip Tease Christopher Hitchens: Mortality Christopher Hitchens: The Portable Atheist Emily Horner: A Love Story Starring My Dead Best Friend SL Huang: Zero Sum Game Monica Hughes: The Guardian of a raisin in the hansberry Isis Monica Hughes: The Isis Pedlar Jennifer Hunter: 21st Century Wicca: A Young Witch's Guide to norton ts eliot, Living the Magical Life Aldous Huxley: Brave New World and in the lorraine hansberry Brave New World Revisited. Burnt Norton Ts Eliot! Riichiro Inagaki Yusuke Murata: Eyeshield 21, Volume 28 through 36. Diana Wynne Jones: Castle in sun by lorraine hansberry, the Air Diana Wynne Jones: House of nixon's vietnamization Many Ways Joseph Jacobs: Celtic Fairy Tales Diana Wynne Jones: The Chronicles of Chrestomanci, Volume 1: Charmed Life / The Lives of a raisin in the sun by hansberry Christopher Chant Diana Wynne Jones: The Chronicles of Chrestomanci, Volume 2: The Magicians of Caprona / Witch Week Diana Wynne Jones: The Chronicles of of outsider Chrestomanci, Volume III (Conrad's Fate, The Pinhoe Egg) Diana Wynne Jones: The Dark Lord of Derkholm Heidi Julavits: The Vanishers. A Raisin Sun By Lorraine! William Keith: The Science Of The Craft Jack Kerouac: On the Road Ken Kesey: Sailor Song Ken Kesey: The Touch Sue Monk Kidd: The Invention of a taste of honey Wings A.S.

King: Ask the a raisin hansberry Passengers Stephen King: The Dark Tower (The Dark Tower, Book 7) Stephen King: Green Mile Stephen King: Song of Susannah (The Dark Tower, Book 6) Stephen King: Wizard and of honey characters Glass (The Dark Tower, Book 4) Stephen King: Wolves of the Calla (The Dark Tower, Book 5) Barbara Kingsolver: Animal Dreams Barbara Kingsolver: The Bean Trees Barbara Kingsolver: The Lacuna Barbara Kingsolver: Pigs in a raisin in the hansberry, Heaven Barbara Kingsolver: Prodigal Summer Barbara Kingsolver: Small Wonder: Essays Eric Klinenberg: Going Solo John Knowles: Morning In Antibes Bryan Konietzko Michael Dante DiMartino: The Rift , Volumes 2 3 Bryan Konietzko Michael Dante DiMartino: Smoke and Shadow , Volumes 1, 2, 3 Bill Konigsberg: Openly Straight. Nixon's Vietnamization! Wally Lamb: The Hour I First Believed: A Novel Wally Lamb: We Are Water Wally Lamb: Wishin' and a raisin in the sun by Hopin' Harper Lee: To Kill a Mockingbird Amber Lehman: Torn Gail Carson Levine: Princess Sonora and Advantages of Multidisciplinary the Long Sleep David Levithan: Are We There Yet? David Levithan: Every Day (Book 1) David Levithan: Every Day (Book 2: Six Earlier Days) David Levithan: Every Day (Book 3: Another Day) David Levithan: How They Met, and in the sun by Other Stories David Levithan: The Realm of of Multidisciplinary Perspectives Essay Possibility David Levithan: Two Boys Kissing David Levithan: Wide Awake Kelly Link: Magic for a raisin hansberry, Beginners Deborah Lipp: Way Of Four: Create Elemental Balance in Your Life Lois Lowry: All About Sam Lois Lowry: Number the arterial Stars Lois Lowry: Anastasia at a raisin in the hansberry This Address Lois Lowry: Anastasia Has the Answers Lois Lowry: Anastasia, Absolutely Lois Lowry: Anastasia, Ask your Analyst Lois Lowry: Attaboy, Sam! Lois Lowry: See You Around, Sam! Lois Lowry: Zooman Sam David Lubar: Wizards of the burnt ts eliot Game T.M. A Raisin In The Lorraine! Luhrmann: Persuasions of the Witch's Craft: Ritual Magic in Contemporary England. Nicoll Machiavelli: The Prince Gregory Maguire: The Dream Stealer Gregory Maguire: Egg and Spoon Gregory Maguire: The Good Liar Gregory Maguire: Leaping Beauty: And Other Animal Fairy Tales Gregory Maguire: The Next Queen of Heaven Yann Martel: Beatrice and Virgil Yann Martel: The Facts Behind the Helsinki Roccamatios Yann Martel: Self George R.R.

Martin: Wild Cards 2: Aces High George R.R. Martin: Wild Cards 3: Jokers Wild Frank McCourt: Angela's Ashes Edain McCoy: Advanced Witchcraft: Go Deeper, Reach Further, Fly Higher Chris McDonnell Cartoon Network: The Art of Steven Universe Seanan McGuire: Every Heart a Doorway China Miville: Perdido Street Station Keith Miller: The Book on Fire Christopher Moore: Bite Me Christopher Moore: Coyote Blue Christopher Moore: A Dirty Job Christopher Moore: Fool Christopher Moore: Island of the nixon's Sequined Love Nun Christopher Moore: The Lust Lizard of lorraine hansberry Melancholy Cove Christopher Moore: Practical Demonkeeping Christopher Moore: Sacr Bleu Christopher Moore: Secondhand Souls Christopher Moore: The Serpent of Advantages of Multidisciplinary Perspectives Venice Christopher Moore: The Stupidest Angel: A Heartwarming Tale of hansberry Christmas Terror Perry Moore: Hero Jaclyn Moriarty: A Tangle of Gold Hannah Moskowitz: Gone, Gone, Gone Ann Moura: Green Witchcraft: Folk Magic, Fairy Lore Herb Craft. Of Multidisciplinary Perspectives Essay! Ted L. A Raisin In The! Nancy: Extra Nutty! Even More Letters from a taste of honey a Nut! Ted L. Nancy: More Letters from a Nut Phyllis Reynolds Naylor: Shiloh Ingrid Newkirk: Making Kind Choices: Everyday Ways to a raisin in the lorraine hansberry, Enhance Your Life Through Earth- and Animal-Friendly Living Joe Nickel: The Magic Detectives Friedrich Nietzsche: The Portable Nietzsche Han Nolan: Dancing on burnt ts eliot the Edge. Ashleen O'Gaea: Celebrating The Seasons Of Life: Beltane to a raisin in the, Mabon : Lore, Rituals, Activities, And Symbols Ashleen O'Gaea: Celebrating the Seasons of Life: Samhain to Ostara : Lore, Rituals, Activities, and Symbols The Onion: Dispatches from the burnt norton ts eliot Tenth Circle: The Best of the sun by lorraine hansberry Onion The Onion: Our Dumb Century: The Onion Presents 100 Years of arterial pressure Headlines from a raisin in the sun by lorraine America's Finest News Source Loretta Orion: Never Again the Burning Times: Paganism Revived George Orwell: A Collection of Essays George Orwell: 1984. Advantages Of Multidisciplinary! Danielle Paige: Dorothy Must Die Chuck Palahniuk: Burnt Tongues Chuck Palahniuk: Damned Chuck Palahniuk: Diary Chuck Palahniuk: Doomed Chuck Palahniuk: Haunted Chuck Palahniuk: Invisible Monsters Chuck Palahniuk: Pygmy Chuck Palahniuk: Rant: An Oral Biography of Buster Casey Chuck Palahniuk: Snuff Chuck Palahniuk: Stranger Than Fiction: True Stories Chuck Palahniuk: Tell-All Katherine Paterson: The Great Gilly Hopkins Julie Anne Peters: By the Time You Read This I'll Be Dead Julie Anne Peters: grl2grl: Short fictions Julie Anne Peters: grl2grl 2 Julie Anne Peters: Lies My Girlfriend Told Me Julie Anne Peters: She Loves You, She Loves You Not Dav Pilkey: Captain Underpants and a raisin lorraine hansberry the Sensational Saga of Sir Stinks-a-Lot Dav Pilkey: Captain Underpants and a taste characters the Tyrannical Retaliation of the Turbo Toilet 2000 Dav Pilkey: Super Diaper Baby 2: The Invasion of the Potty Snatchers Luigi Pirandello: Six Characters in Search of an a raisin, Author and Other Plays Michael Pollan: The Omnivore's Dilemma: A Natural History of norton ts eliot Four Meals Daniel Pool: What Jane Austen Ate and a raisin in the sun by lorraine Charles Dickens Knew Tim Powers: Expiration Date Philip Pullman: Once Upon a Time in of honey, the North. Daniel Quinn: My Ishmael Daniel Quinn: The Story of a raisin sun by lorraine hansberry B: An Adventure of the characters Mind and Spirit. Venecia Rauls: The Second Circle: Tools for a raisin sun by, the Advancing Pagan Wilson Rawls: Summer of the summary Monkeys Louise Rennison: Are These My Basoomas I See Before Me? Louise Rennison: Love Is a Many Trousered Thing Louise Rennison: Stop in the Name of a raisin Pants Pamela Ribon: Why Moms Are Weird Tom Robbins: Still Life with Woodpecker Spider Robinson: Antinomy Spider Robinson: The Callahan Touch Spider Robinson: Callahan's Con Spider Robinson: Callahan's Key Spider Robinson: Callahan's Lady Spider Robinson: Callahan's Legacy Spider Robinson: Callahan's Secret Spider Robinson: Deathkiller Spider Robinson: God Is an a taste characters, Iron and a raisin in the lorraine Other Stories Spider Robinson: Lady Slings the a taste of honey Booze Spider Robinson: Lifehouse Spider Robinson: Melancholy Elephants Spider Robinson: Night of a raisin lorraine Power Spider Robinson: Telempath Spider Robinson: Time Travellers Strictly Cash Spider Robinson: User Friendly Spider Robinson: Very Bad Deaths Elizabeth Rogers: The Green Book: The Everyday Guide to summary of outsider, Saving the sun by lorraine hansberry Planet One Simple Step at a Time Patrick Rothfuss: The Name of the memory types Wind Edmond Rostand: Cyrano De Bergerac Rainbow Rowell: Attachments Rainbow Rowell: Kindred Spirits Bertrand Russell: Religion and a raisin sun by Science. Burnt! Louis Sachar: Fuzzy Mud Louis Sachar: Someday Angeline Louis Sachar: Johnny's in a raisin in the sun by, the Basement Carl Sagan: Pale Blue Dot J.D.

Salinger: Franny and arterial pressure Zooey Alex Sanchez: Rainbow Boys Jean-Paul Sartre: Being and a raisin in the sun by lorraine Nothingness Suza Scalora Francesca Lia Block: Evidence of arterial Angels Eric Schlosser: Americans Eric Schlosser: Reefer Madness - Sex, Drugs, and Cheap Labor in a raisin in the lorraine, the American Black Market Alice Sebold: The Almost Moon Shyam Selvadurai: Swimming in the Monsoon Sea Adam Selzer: I Put a Spell on memory types You: From the a raisin sun by lorraine Files of a taste of honey Chrissie Woodward, Spelling Bee Detective William Shakespeare: The Merchant of a raisin in the lorraine Venice William Shakespeare: A Midsummer Night's Dream Darren Shan: Sons of Destiny (Cirque Du Freak, Book 12) Brianna Shrum: Never Never William Sleator: The Beasties William Sleator: Boltzmon! William Sleator: The Boy Who Couldn't Die William Sleator: Dangerous Wishes William Sleator: The Green Futures of vietnamization Tycho William Sleator: The Night the Heads Came William Sleator: Rewind William Sleator: Test Andrew Smith: The Alex Crow Andrew Smith: Ghost Medicine Andrew Smith: In the in the sun by hansberry Path of burnt Falling Objects Andrew Smith: The Marbury Lens Andrew Smith: Passenger Andrew Smith: Stand-Off Andrew Smith: Stick Betty Smith: A Tree Grows in a raisin lorraine, Brooklyn Sherwood Smith Rachel Manija Brown: Stranger Lemony Snicket: 29 Myths on the Swinster Pharmacy Lemony Snicket: File Under: 13 Suspicious Incidents Lemony Snicket: Shouldn't You Be In School? Lemony Snicket: When Did You See Her Last? Lemony Snicket: Why Is This Night Different From All Other Nights? Stephen Sondheim James Lapine: Into the Woods Jerry Spinelli: Do The Funky Pickle Jerry Spinelli: Fourth Grade Rats Jerry Spinelli: Hokey Pokey Jerry Spinelli: Jason and Marceline Jerry Spinelli: Knots in My Yo-Yo String Jerry Spinelli: The Library Card Jerry Spinelli: Picklemania! Jerry Spinelli: Report To The Principal's Office! Jerry Spinelli: Space Station Seventh Grade Jerry Spinelli: There's a Girl in My Hammerlock Jerry Spinelli: Third Grade Angels Jerry Spinelli: The Warden's Daughter Jerry Spinelli: Who Put That Hair in norton ts eliot, My Toothbrush? Jerry Spinelli: Who Ran My Underwear Up The Flagpole? Jerry Spinelli: Wringer Ivan Stang: The Subgenius Psychlopaedia of Slack: The Bobliographon Ivan Stang: Three Fisted Tales of Bob Jon Stewart: The Daily Show with Jon Stewart Presents America Tom Stoppard: The Real Inspector Hound. A Raisin Sun By Lorraine! Maria Tatar: The Classic Fairy Tales: Texts, Criticism Patricia Telesco: Urban Pagan: Magical Living in vietnamization, a 9-to-5 World Angie Thomas: The Hate U Give Henry David Thoreau: Walden and Other Writings Lynne Truss: Cat out of Hell Lynne Truss: The Lynne Truss Treasury: Columns and Three Comic Novels Lao Tzu: Tao Te Ching, 25th-Anniversary Edition.

Jessica Valenti: Full Frontal Feminism Susan Vaught: Big Fat Manifesto Kurt Vonnegut: Cat's Cradle. Sarah Waters: Tipping the sun by hansberry Velvet H.G. Wells: The Invisible Man H.G. Wells: The Time Machine Edith Wharton: The House of computer Mirth Elie Wiesel: Dawn Elie Wiesel: Day Jen Wilde: Queens of a raisin in the sun by lorraine Geek Laura Ingalls Wilder: Little House in pressure, the Big Woods Laura Ingalls Wilder: Little House on in the sun by the Prairie Thornton Wilder: Our Town Lili Wilkinson: Pink Jacqueline Wilson: Girls in pressure, Love Jacqueline Wilson: Girls Out Late Chris Wooding: Poison Richard Wright: Native Son. Rebecca Yarros: Full Measures Jane Yolen: Armageddon Summer Jane Yolen: Dragon's Blood: The Pit Dragon Chronicles, Volume One Jane Yolen: Sister Light, Sister Dark. In The Sun By Lorraine Hansberry! Roger Zelazny: Bring Me the Head of of honey characters Prince Charming Paul Zindel: A Begonia for a raisin hansberry, Miss Applebaum Paul Zindel: I Never Loved Your Mind Paul Zindel: Loch Paul Zindel: My Darling, My Hamburger Paul Zindel: The Pigman and pressure Me Paul Zindel: The Pigman's Legacy Paul Zindel: The Undertaker's Gone Bananas Markus Zusak: The Book Thief Also available:

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Quels leaderships pour la reussite de tous les eleves ? Comment le partage des responsabilites au niveau de la direction d’un etablissement scolaire peut-il favoriser la reussite des eleves ? Cette question constitue la cle de voute de ce nouveau dossier d’actualites du service Veille et analyses (n°73), intitule « Quels leaderships pour la reussite de tous les eleves ? ». En s’appuyant sur les recherches recentes menees en France et a l’international, il met en evidence la generalisation progressive d’un modele de direction au service des apprentissages, dans des etablissements beneficiant partout d’une autonomie croissante tout en etant davantage tenus de rendre compte de leurs performances. Malgre des variations importantes selon les pays et quels que soient les modes de leadership adoptes, la position cle du chef d’etablissement est partout reaffirmee, non plus seulement pour gerer l’ecole, mais aussi pour promouvoir une dynamique pedagogique collective : c’est l’engagement conjoint des equipes de direction et des equipes enseignantes qui est a meme de garantir une meilleure reussite des eleves. Pour autant, si chercheurs et decideurs semblent s’accorder sur l’importance de renforcer le leadership pedagogique au sein des etablissements, les reformes entreprises ne parviennent aujourd’hui que marginalement a enrayer la rarefaction des vocations, tant chez les chefs d’etablissement que chez les enseignants. Sun By Lorraine Hansberry. Quelles orientations seraient a privilegier pour renverser la tendance ? Quels efforts seraient a consentir pour que ces metiers redeviennent attractifs ? La direction des etablissements scolaires est devenue une priorite forte de l’action gouvernementale en matiere d’education dans un grand nombre de pays (Pont et al. Summary. , 2008). A Raisin In The Hansberry. Politiques publiques et recherches s’accordent pour considerer le role crucial joue par le chef d’etablissement non seulement en matiere de management, mais aussi dans la dynamique pedagogique qui mobilise son personnel. Arterial. Autrement dit, on a raisin in the hansberry evolue d’ un modele « gestionnaire » a un modele de direction au service des apprentissages des eleves . Ces evolutions interviennent dans un contexte marque par une double tendance : d’une part une autonomie plus large des etablissements et corollairement une attention plus forte portee aux resultats de l’ecole (Eurydice, 2007 ; Pair, 2007 ; Hassani Meuret, 2010), et d’autre part une penurie croissante de candidats qualifies pour assurer la releve de chefs d’etablissement vieillissants et une rarefaction des vocations enseignantes (AFAE, 2010 ; Schleicher, 2012). Dans ce contexte, il est dans l’interet des systemes educatifs de promouvoir des formes de pilotage, au niveau des etablissements, qui vont au-dela des modalites bureaucratiques et gestionnaires traditionnelles, avec des statuts, des salaires et indemnites et des mecanismes d’evaluation et de promotion de carriere, qui accompagnent l’engagement des chefs d’etablissements et des enseignants en faveur d’une qualite de l’education (Schleicher, 2012).

Le « leadership », entendu comme une approche globale du partage des responsabilites au niveau de l’etablissement, voire a un niveau inter-etablissements, en vue de promouvoir le changement, constitue une piste privilegiee aujourd’hui par nombre de pays. En France toutefois, les resistances sont fortes. Burnt Norton Ts Eliot. Les chefs d’etablissement, dont le corps a ete cree en 2001, doivent rompre avec la profession enseignante dont ils sont issus et se conformer a des pratiques de direction de plus en plus normalisees (Pelage, 2011). Sun By Lorraine. Les enseignants sont pour leur part traditionnellement hostiles a une direction aux fonctions elargies, supposee aller a l’encontre de leur liberte pedagogique (Gauthier, 2007). Apres une premiere synthese sur les synergies entre leadership et changements educatifs (Gaussel, 2007), le service Veille et Analyses propose dans ce dossier une analyse approfondie des acteurs et des pratiques du leadership, a partir des travaux recents realises par des experts et chercheurs internationaux. Vietnamization. Apres avoir inscrit les principes du leadership dans un contexte politique global, nous nous interessons aux roles des chefs d’etablissement et des enseignants dans les etablissements scolaires avant de presenter plusieurs types de leadership qui semblent faire plus ou moins consensus. Meme si l’organisation du systeme scolaire releve de la seule responsabilite des Etats, ces derniers sont tenus par des lignes directrices communes, decidees au niveau europeen (Hutmacher, 2007) ou dans des organismes internationaux tels la Banque mondiale et l’OCDE.

La doxa dominante peut se resumer ainsi (Pair, 2007) : dans une economie fondee sur la connaissance et dans le cadre de la lutte contre la pauvrete, l’education est essentielle ; mais les systemes educatifs sont trop rigides dans un monde en perpetuel mouvement ; la solution consiste a deplacer le pouvoir vers les usagers et davantage responsabiliser les etablissements scolaires ; il revient aux pouvoirs publics de creer le cadre de cette responsabilisation ; les outils disponibles sont le mode de financement, le libre choix de l’ecole laisse aux usagers et l’evaluation des etablissements ainsi que la publication des resultats de ces evaluations. Les travaux de l’OCDE montrent que la notion de « direction », traduction restrictive du terme anglais « leadership », suppose l’exercice d’une influence intentionnelle par une personne (ou un groupe) sur d’autres personnes (ou d’autres groupes), et repose sur la formulation d’objectifs ou de resultats a atteindre. In The Sun By Hansberry. Elle se distingue de la gestion et de l’administration d’un etablissement scolaire, plus etroitement associees a une efficacite procedurale, en lien avec un temps plus ou moins present. Norton Ts Eliot. Les trois taches, toutefois fortement imbriquees, rentrent dans les attributions des chefs d’etablissement. A Raisin In The Lorraine Hansberry. Le pouvoir de diriger n’est pas le fait d’une seule personne, mais peut etre reparti entre plusieurs personnes au sein de l’ecole et en dehors de celle-ci (Pont et al. Nixon's Vietnamization. , 2008). En explorant les differentes approches scientifiques, essentiellement nord-americaines, developpees depuis les annees 70, Spillane et al. Sun By Lorraine. (2008) distinguent deux traditions dominantes : une tradition qui envisage le leadership comme lie a la personnalite, a la competence et au style des personnes, et une autre tradition, moins repandue et plus deterministe, liee a des formes d’organisations dominantes plutot qu’a des pratiques individuelles. En France, le terme utilise est plutot celui de pilotage , dont Pair (2007) donne la definition suivante : « l e pilotage met en jeu des regles de fonctionnement, des objectifs a atteindre, des decisions pour que la mise en ? uvre conduise a des resultats conformes aux objectifs. Of Multidisciplinary Perspectives. Les decisions ne sont pas prises une fois pour toutes et le pilotage comporte donc une boucle de regulation qui vise a ce que les resultats obtenus se rapprochent des objectifs fixes ». La notion de « pilotage » heurte certaines susceptibilites dans le corps enseignant : il y a une culture traditionnellement hostile a cette idee qui est vecue comme allant a l’encontre de la liberte pedagogique.

Ceci est d’autant plus pregnant en France que l’etablissement n’est pas l’echelon principal en ce qui concerne le travail collectif ou l’evaluation : les programmes sont decides au niveau national et sont mis en ?uvre dans la classe, ce qui est source d’inegalite et d’inefficacite (Gauthier, 2007). Pour Obin (2007), trois modes de pilotage se confrontent : pilotage par les normes (derive bureaucratique) ; pilotage par les objectifs et les valeurs (prospere de nos jours, mais derive technocratique possible) ; pilotage par les valeurs et l’action commune. A Raisin In The. C’est ce dernier mode de pilotage qu’il defend. Pour Barroso, ce qui a ete initie dans les pays anglo-saxons par les politiques neo-liberales de la nouvelle droite (Thatcher et Reagan), connu sous le nom de self-management school (Royaume-Uni, Australie et Nouvelle Zelande) ou de school-based management (Etats-Unis ou Canada), se distingue des volontes d’ameliorer les systemes existants comme en Allemagne, Norvege, ou encore Portugal, Espagne, France, Italie : les contextes et les histoires ne sont pas les memes. Advantages Perspectives Essay. La principale difference entre ces deux approches reside davantage dans le libre choix des familles et la concurrence accrue entre etablissements (pays anglo-saxons) que dans l’autonomie et la decentralisation qui est une tendance dans tous les pays (Barroso, 2007). Vers une nouvelle gestion publique : decentralisation, autonomie, obligation de resultats. Quelles reformes en matiere de decentralisation ? De nombreux pays ont engage des reformes de leurs systemes educatifs en faveur de la decentralisation. In The Sun By Lorraine Hansberry. Il s’agit de s’appuyer sur des etablissements scolaires qui jouissent d’une plus grande autonomie, tout en etant soumis a une plus grande obligation de resultats ( accountability ). Norton Ts Eliot. Cette autonomie touche potentiellement la gestion budgetaire, les ressources humaines et la direction pedagogique.

La reddition de comptes porte moins sur la mise en ?uvre des moyens que sur les resultats obtenus par les enseignants et les eleves. In The Sun By Hansberry. La pression sur le chef d’etablissement peut generer une tension plus ou moins forte entre la responsabilite individuelle et les attentes collectives (parents, enseignants, administrateurs, etc.) (Barzano, 2011). Ces reformes empruntent cependant des formes variables. Perspectives Essay. Globalement, on in the sun by distingue les pays du Nord de l’Europe ou la liberte des acteurs locaux est largement soutenue par la decentralisation politique, des pays du Sud qui demeurent peu enclins a favoriser l’autonomie des etablissements. Entre les deux, c’est la dissonance qui domine. Arterial. Ainsi en Belgique et au Pays-Bas, les etablissements sont historiquement dotes d’une forte autonomie. In The Sun By Lorraine. Des politiques extremement volontaristes se sont developpees des les annees 1980 au Royaume-Uni (Angleterre, Pays de Galles et Irlande du Nord). A Taste Of Honey Characters. Des pays comme l’Allemagne et la France, de par leur histoire respective, ont realise des avancees timides en matiere d’autonomie des etablissements (Eurydice, 2007).

S’agissant des mecanismes de responsabilisation, l’Angleterre reste sans conteste le pays dans lequel une politique nationale exigeante a ete generalisee, basee sur la publication periodique de rapports. A Raisin In The Lorraine. Dans les autres pays, c’est la diversite qui prevaut, avec une tendance naturelle a s’appuyer sur les dispositifs de controle deja en vigueur. Perspectives Essay. Au Portugal, le directeur rend des comptes devant l’assemblee qui l’a elu. Sun By Hansberry. En France, ce sont les lettres de mission et les contrats d’objectifs passes avec l’administration territoriale qui sont les instruments d’evaluation. Nixon's. En Italie, meme si l’evaluation existe dans les textes officiels, elle n’a pas de realite dans le quotidien des etablissements (Barzano, 2011). Malgre des calendriers differents, les pays d’Europe ne font plus aujourd’hui de ces reformes une finalite ; la decentralisation est ainsi davantage consideree comme un moyen au service d’objectifs plus directement en lien avec l’enseignement et l’apprentissage (Eurydice, 2007). Autonomie des etablissements et leadership. Les travaux de l’OCDE distinguent deux modeles de decentralisation qui peuvent influer sur le role du chef d’etablissement et donc sur le leadership (Pont et al. In The Lorraine. , 2008) : une decentralisation basee sur une responsabilite « locale » , caracterisee par un transfert des pouvoirs de decision a une instance intermediaire entre l’Etat central et l’etablissement scolaire (les Local Authorities en Angleterre ou les School Districts aux Etats-Unis). Pressure. Les ecoles font ainsi partie d’un ensemble plus vaste d’etablissements, les chefs d’etablissement sont amenes a exercer des fonctions de pilotage en dehors du perimetre de leur ecole et sont tenus de savoir travailler en reseau au sein du systeme educatif local. A Raisin Hansberry. une decentralisation basee sur une responsabilite de l’ecole , caracterisee par une delegation de pouvoirs a l’etablissement meme. Essay. La charge d’administration et de gestion dans ces etablissements est plus lourde et va souvent de pair avec une diminution du temps accorde au pilotage des activites d’enseignement et d’apprentissage.

Le personnel enseignant, les parents et les representants locaux participent souvent de facon formelle ou informelle aux prises de decision concernant l’etablissement. Quel que soit le modele dominant a l’echelle nationale, les responsabilites des etablissements varient considerablement selon les pays, mais aussi selon les domaines de decision. A Raisin In The Sun By Hansberry. Certains pays pronent l’autonomie a la fois administrative et pedagogique des etablissements ; c’est le cas des Pays-Bas, de la Republique Tcheque et, dans une moindre mesure, de l’Angleterre. Burnt Ts Eliot. D’autres, a l’inverse, disposent de marges de man?uvre extremement reduites, tant en terme de gestion de budget et de ressources humaines, qu’en termes de programmes et d’evaluation (Grece, Turquie). In The. D’autres enfin combinent une forte autonomie pedagogique avec une faible autonomie administrative : Nouvelle-Zelande, Coree et Japon (OCDE, 2011). Burnt Norton. Si dans des pays tels que les Etats-Unis, les Pays-Bas, le Royaume-Uni et la Suede, le pouvoir de decision des chefs d’etablissement est eleve dans la plupart des domaines, il reste bien plus limite dans des pays tels que la Grece, le Portugal et la Turquie (OCDE, 2007). A Raisin In The Sun By Lorraine Hansberry. Au Chili, en Coree et aux Etats-Unis, le role du chef d’etablissement varie fortement selon les ecoles ; a l’inverse au Danemark et en Norvege, les chefs d’etablissement ont des roles relativement homogenes d’une ecole a l’autre (Pont et al. Summary. , 2008). Leadership et culture du changement. Le leadership, en tant que relais entre les politiques publiques et les pratiques educatives, est un maillon essentiel de la mise en ?uvre des reformes.

Autrement dit, il est en quelque sorte garant du changement. A Raisin In The Sun By Hansberry. Son influence s’exerce a la fois sur l’adaptation des processus scolaires et sur les cultures et comportements des personnels. Cette capacite de l’etablissement, non seulement a traduire sur le terrain les reformes voulues par l’Etat central mais aussi a s’adapter a son environnement et tenir compte des evolutions societales, est au c?ur des defis que l’ecole doit relever pour former les citoyens de demain (Pont et al. Of Outsider. , 2008). A Raisin Sun By Hansberry. Pour Spillane et al. Nixon's Vietnamization. (2008), le leadership vise fondamentalement a promouvoir le changement et l’innovation ; il se distingue ainsi du management qui cherche a garantir la stabilite et le bon fonctionnement de l’etablissement. Dans une perspective de leadership, il s’agit en priorite d’agir sur l’environnement et pas seulement de reagir a l’environnement. C’est aussi l’idee defendue par Ehrich Cranston (2009) lorsqu’ils estiment que dans un monde en perpetuel changement, les chefs d’etablissement doivent etre proactifs et ne pas se contenter d’appliquer des reformes. Pour Fullan (2010), le changement peut etre « conduit » ( led ) mais pas controle ( managed ), et c’est le chef d’etablissement qui joue un role cle dans ce processus. A Raisin In The Lorraine. C’est lui qui peut mobiliser les enseignants, garantir de bonnes conditions d’exercice et promouvoir une culture apprenante au sein de l’etablissement.

Le changement n’est pas reductible a l’innovation, mais concerne davantage la capacite a innover dont l’organisation – ici l’ecole – fait preuve ( innovation vs innovativeness ). Perspectives. « The principal of the a raisin in the lorraine hansberry, future – the arterial, Cultural Change Principal – must be attuned to lorraine, the big picture, a sophisticated conceptual thinker who transforms the types, organization through people and a raisin sun by teams (Fullan, 2001). Arterial Pressure. Cultural Change Principals display palpable energy, enthusiasm, and in the lorraine hansberry hope. Summary Of Outsider. In addition, five essential components characterize leaders in in the hansberry, the knowledge society: moral purpose, an burnt, understanding of the a raisin sun by, change process, the Advantages Essay, ability to in the lorraine, improve relationships, knowledge creation and nixon's vietnamization sharing, and a raisin in the coherence making » (Fullan, 2010). Cette vision fondamentalement dynamique de l’etablissement, qui s’incarne notamment dans la fonction de chef d’etablissement, ne trouve que peu de resonance dans les pratiques de leadership telles qu’elles peuvent etre observees aujourd’hui par les chercheurs. Of Honey Characters. Le focus porte clairement sur l’evaluation du « changement » , c’est-a-dire l’amelioration des resultats des eleves.

1. Diriger autrement pour ameliorer les resultats des eleves. L’autonomie croissante des etablissements s’accompagne d’un recentrage sur les questions d’enseignement et d’apprentissage. Hansberry. Le reseau Leadership for arterial pressure, Learning recemment cree par la faculte d’education de Cambridge, est une manifestation concrete des liens etroits entre leadership et pedagogie qui rassemble ici professionnels du leadership et chercheurs. Sun By. Le 32 eme colloque de l’AFAE, intitule « Equipe de direction, equipe enseignante » interroge les tensions entre sphere administrative et sphere pedagogique, tout en cherchant a les depasser (AFAE, 2010). Pour Gauthier (2007), en effet, l’initiative pedagogique doit etre au c?ur de l’etablissement et ne peut venir que d’un collectif. Arterial. Avec le leadership, « il ne s’agit en realite pas de quelque autorite personnelle du chef qui irait imposer un « pouvoir pedagogique », mais de la fonction d’initiative pedagogique dont chaque professeur doit etre porteur et qui doit etre repartie entre les acteurs, et coordonnee par le chef d’etablissement ». Sun By. Il en est de meme pour Spillane et al. Of Outsider. (2008) : « le leadership est defini comme l’identification, l’acquisition, l’affectation, la coordination et l’utilisation des ressources sociales, materielles et culturelles qui etablissent les conditions prealables a l’enseignement et aux apprentissages. A Raisin In The Sun By Lorraine. Il implique de mobiliser le personnel, les eleves pour reperer et s’attaquer aux taches de reforme pedagogique et exploiter les ressources necessaires pour soutenir la transformation de l’enseignement et des apprentissages . Types. » Cet horizon commun se traduit par la definition de nouveaux indicateurs, fondes sur des objectifs d’equite et de reussite des eleves : ameliorer les resultats des eleves, notamment pour ce qui concerne les competences de base ; reduire les ecarts de resultats entre les differentes populations d’eleves ; assurer une meilleure integration de certaines populations d’eleves a besoins particuliers ; reduire les taux de decrochage, en particulier dans l’enseignement obligatoire, etc. L’idee qu’une direction d’etablissement efficace doit permettre d’ameliorer l’efficience et l’equite de l’enseignement s’enracine dans deux courants de pensee qui marquent les recherches sur la qualite en education depuis pres de 30 ans : school effectiveness et school improvement. L’influence du school effectiveness et du school improvement. Si l’on observe aujourd’hui une certaine convergence entre ces deux courants, les approches qui ont preside a leur creation restent relativement distinctes (Berger et al. A Raisin. , 2004).

D’un cote, le courant des ecoles efficaces ( school effectiveness ) cherche a montrer que les resultats variables des eleves peuvent s’expliquer par des facteurs qui ne relevent pas exclusivement des caracteristiques de ces memes eleves, mais sont aussi lies aux etablissements et aux enseignants. Nixon's Vietnamization. Les recherches, plutot quantitatives, sont centrees sur l’organisation de l’ecole, elles s’appuient preferentiellement sur des evaluations externes, s’interessent a l’ecole telle qu’elle est et privilegient une approche du changement focalisee sur les reformes en cours. D’un autre cote, le courant de l’amelioration de l’ecole ( school improvement ) porte davantage sur les processus ; il s’agit d’une « approche particuliere du changement educatif qui a pour objectif d’ameliorer les resultats des eleves aussi bien que la capacite de l’ecole a gerer les changements. Hansberry. Elle se preoccupe d’ameliorer la performance de l’eleve en se concentrant sur le processus d’enseignement-apprentissage et sur les conditions qui le soutiennent. Of Multidisciplinary. » (Hopkins 2001, cite par Berger et al. A Raisin In The Lorraine Hansberry. , 2004). A Taste Of Honey Characters. Les recherches sont plutot qualitatives, privilegient l’auto-evaluation des etablissements et s’interessent au « comment » les ecoles « deviennent » efficaces (et donc aux acteurs). Dans l’un ou l’autre cas, les etudes realisees ont pris le contrepied de ce qui etait defendu dans les annees 1960-70 : les differences entre etablissements s’expliqueraient davantage par des pratiques manageriales differentes que par les publics qui les frequentent. In The Lorraine. Les etudes plus recentes depassent ce debat et posent une double hypothese : « d’une part, les processus manageriaux et pedagogiques developpes dans les etablissements scolaires sont indexes par le public qui les compose, et d’autre part, l’articulation de ces pratiques avec la composition d’etablissement est un facteur explicatif significatif des differences entre etablissements scolaires . Memory Types. » (Dumay Dupriez, 2004). En tout etat de cause, avec les enquetes PISA, le role des etablissements scolaires dans la reussite des eleves est revenu sur le devant de la scene (Rey, 2011), et les deux courants tendent a se rapprocher (cf. A Raisin In The Hansberry. revue School Effectiveness School Improvement ) : les modes d’evaluation se combinent pour le benefice a la fois des etablissements et des eleves, sous l’effet de la generalisation des politiques d’obligation de resultats (Townsend, 2007).

Les recherches issues de ces courants trouvent cependant un echo marginal en France. Arterial Pressure. Depuis la loi d’orientation de 1989, c’est le projet d’etablissement qui concentre l’attention des pouvoirs publics et des chercheurs, meme si cette orientation est moins dominante aujourd’hui. A Raisin Lorraine. C’est le role preponderant de l’Etat francais dans la definition de l’architecture du systeme educatif qui pourrait expliquer le peu d’interet accorde aux correlations potentielles entre la vie de l’etablissement et ses performances (Berger et al. Summary. , 2004). En France, l’effet maitre est important, c’est pourquoi d’apres Forestier (2007), l’autonomie pedagogique doit primer lorsque l’on parle d’autonomie des etablissements. A Raisin Sun By Lorraine Hansberry. D’apres les chiffres avances par Bressoux (2008), l’effet maitre intervient dans la reussite des eleves a hauteur de 10%, tout comme l’origine sociale, et l’effet etablissement a hauteur de 5%. Summary. Le rapport s’inverse toutefois dans les etablissements situes dans des zones defavorisees, rendant le travail en equipe plus necessaire. Quel impact du leadership sur l’enseignement et l’apprentissage ? Toutes les etudes portant sur le deploiement d’une reforme ou d‘un dispositif quel qu’il soit soulignent systematiquement l’importance de l’engagement du chef d’etablissement pour une meilleure atteinte des objectifs. In The Lorraine. Tout se passe comme s’il etait entendu que la direction d’un etablissement devait jouer un role moteur a tous les niveaux, sans que soient precisement pointes les effets d’une insuffisance. Ce qui contribue effectivement a l’amelioration des resultats des eleves n’est pas non plus evident a demontrer parce que la reussite ou l’echec n’est bien evidemment pas imputable au seul leadership. Nixon's. Les recherches mettent generalement en evidence trois types de correlation : l’origine sociale, economique et culturelle des eleves, qui constitue la principale source de variation ; les facteurs lies au systeme scolaire (niveau macro) ; les variables liees a l’etablissement scolaire, en particulier l’engagement des enseignants et les pratiques pedagogiques (Feyfant, 2011). Les recherches de type « evidence-based » ne permettent pas en effet de mettre au jour une correlation directe entre le leadership et la reussite des eleves.

La mega-analyse realisee par Hattie (synthese de 800 meta-analyses traitant 50000 recherches) ne fournit que des preuves indirectes de cette correlation : le fait que les apprentissages se deroulent dans un climat scolaire structure, que les enseignants developpent des pratiques collegiales au sein d’equipes motivees et stables, favorisent les apprentissages. Lorraine. Mais ce sont les facteurs lies a la personnalite de l’enseignant et a l’organisation d’une seance pedagogique qui sont les mieux a meme de predire la reussite des eleves (Hattie, 2009). Types. Ces resultats convergent avec d’autres travaux qui mettent invariablement en evidence le role charniere, bien qu’indirect, joue par le chef d’etablissement dans la progression des eleves (Scheerens, 2007 ; Townsend, 2007). Certaines revues systematiques, centrees exclusivement sur les liens entre leadership et reussite des eleves vont egalement dans ce sens. A Raisin In The Sun By. Les huit etudes de cas analysees par l’EPPI-Centre de Londres (Bell et al. Nixon's Vietnamization. , 2003) montrent que ce sont les actions du leadership en faveur du travail des enseignants, de l’organisation de l’ecole et des relations avec les parents et plus largement la communaute qui peuvent avoir un impact sur la reussite des eleves. Les travaux de Leithwood et al. In The Hansberry. (2006) pour le Ministere de l’education anglais soulignent l’importance des qualites et des competences personnelles des leaders pour developper des strategies adaptees a l’environnement ou ils se trouvent : il s’agit d’agir simultanement sur les capacites et motivations des personnels de l’etablissement et sur les conditions dans lesquelles ils interviennent. Norton Ts Eliot. Si les performances de l’etablissement sont faibles, la mobilisation pour construire une culture commune de la reussite par exemple sera davantage le fait du chef d’etablissement au depart que le resultat d’une construction collective.

La revue systematique realisee par Robinson et al. A Raisin In The Sun By Lorraine. (2009) pour le Ministere de l’education neo-zelandais montre qu’un leadership focalise sur la pedagogie ( pedagocical leadership ) est plus a meme d’influencer positivement la reussite des eleves qu’un leadership davantage base sur les relations et la promotion d’une vision commune ( transformational leadership ). Norton Ts Eliot. Parmi les cinq dimensions pedagogiques identifiees, ce sont les actions du leadership visant a promouvoir le developpement des enseignants qui sont les plus efficaces : il s’agit de leur fournir des opportunites formelles et informelles d’evoluer dans leurs pratiques en favorisant un climat d’echanges entre enseignants et eleves, en developpant une responsabilite collective pour la reussite des eleves et en accompagnant les enseignants pour resoudre les difficultes rencontrees. A Raisin In The Lorraine. 2. Si l’on apprehende toute l’importance du « collectif » dans la plupart des etudes d’impact dediees au leadership, peu de recherches empiriques permettent d’evaluer veritablement les effets du leadership distribue (Leithwood et al. Computer Memory. , 2006). A Raisin Sun By. D’apres Mulford (2003), un leadership qui est a la fois base sur un role fort du chef d’etablissement et sur une distribution des fonctions de direction est le plus a meme de faire une difference, en particulier dans une perspective d’amelioration durable ( sustainable improvement ). Arterial Pressure. Cette perspective, pour etre effective, ne peut se limiter aux modalites du nouveau management public, elle doit s’appuyer sur la capacite meme de l’ecole a apprendre et evoluer. A Raisin Sun By Hansberry. 3.

Pour Elmore (2008) egalement, les strategies pour developper et diffuser les connaissances et les competences au sein des etablissements sont essentielles. Nixon's. Il plaide pour une fonction davantage centree sur l’« apprentissage organisationnel » ( organisational learning ) et moins regulee par les mesures de controle et evaluations externes. Sun By Lorraine Hansberry. Les recents travaux de Day et al. Summary. (2009) font echo a cette conclusion. A Raisin Sun By. Les etablissements les moins efficaces accordent plus d’importance a l’utilisation des donnees qu’aux valeurs communes qui cimentent les actions de leadership et qui visent a la fois la promotion du bien etre individuel et social et la meilleure reussite des eleves. Les chefs d’etablissement des ecoles les plus efficaces savent ameliorer les resultats des eleves a travers ce qu’ils sont (leurs valeurs, leurs competences) et les strategies qu’ils deploient (Day et al. Nixon's. , 2009) Ils empruntent tous a un repertoire de valeurs educatives et de qualites personnelles et interpersonnelles et a un eventail d’actions strategiques internes et externes, mais savent aussi articuler ces elements avec les besoins de l’ecole et les injonctions des politiques nationales. Les enseignements de PISA ne sont pour autant pas a negliger quand on in the lorraine s’eloigne des etablissements pour examiner l’efficacite des differents systemes educatifs.

Ils s’averent notamment sans ambiguite quand il s’agit d’evaluer l’impact de l’autonomie sur les performances. Burnt Norton. « Plus les etablissements d’enseignement sont nombreux a detenir la responsabilite de la definition et de l’elaboration de leurs programmes et evaluations, plus la performance du systeme d’education dans son ensemble est elevee » (OCDE, 2011). C’est donc l’autonomie pedagogique au niveau de l’etablissement qui predit le mieux la reussite des eleves. En revanche, la correlation entre l’autonomie administrative et la performance des etablissements est moins evidente ; elle s’avere positive dans les pays ou la culture de la responsabilisation est favorisee, c’est-a-dire dans les pays ou les etablissements rendent majoritairement publics leurs resultats (OCDE, 2011). L’autonomie des etablissements va de pair avec de nouveaux modeles de repartition des taches de direction et de nouveaux types de responsabilite. A Raisin Sun By. Le leadership s’entend comme un engagement collectif, il ne releve pas de la seule responsabilite du chef d’etablissement. Vietnamization. Cette repartition des taches de direction peut etre plus ou moins formalisee ; elle peut s’incarner dans la constitution d’equipes de direction ou bien s’ouvrir a une delegation plus systematique des responsabilites et une implication plus forte des enseignants. Chef d’etablissement : une profession en mutation.

Quelle que soit l’autonomie dont jouit l’etablissement, et quelle que soit l’amplitude de cette distribution des responsabilites, le chef d’etablissement reste dans une grande majorite des cas celui a qui incombe la plus grande part de pouvoirs dans l’ecole. Des responsabilites accrues, une fonction plus strategique. La fonction de chef d’etablissement a connu des evolutions importantes au cours des decennies passees dans tous les pays de l’OCDE : de quelques responsabilites supplementaires assumees par un enseignant, elle est devenue (ou tend a devenir) une fonction a part entiere, d’abord caracterisee par une responsabilite administrative accrue, puis de plus en plus concernee aussi par des taches d’ordre pedagogique. D’une facon generale, le role du chef d’etablissement evolue vers une conception du metier plus systemique , visant a faire de l’etablissement une organisation apprenante et privilegiant le pilotage a l’administration. Sun By Hansberry. Dans certains pays, le fait de definir des strategies a long terme et d’en garantir la reussite fait officiellement partie des attributions du chef d’etablissement (Suede, Angleterre, Ecosse, Irlande et Irlande du Nord).

Les chefs d’etablissements sont donc censes developper une attitude plus strategique, supposant une certaine competence dans la manipulation de donnees tres diverses, en particulier les resultats des tests standardises. Computer Memory. Ils sont egalement supposes savoir mieux communiquer sur leur etablissement, potentiellement pour le « vendre » a une clientele moins captive que par le passe, et en tout etat de cause savoir mieux se positionner dans un environnement plus concurrentiel (Pont et al. A Raisin. , 2008). Sous l’effet conjugue de l’autonomie plus large des etablissements et de l’obligation accrue de rendre des comptes, leur charge de travail s’est considerablement alourdie et complexifiee. Computer Memory. Le caractere cumulatif des exigences externes peut se traduire par une fragmentation excessive des taches qui nuit a la coherence globale de l’activite et sape la capacite des etablissements a evoluer. A Raisin Sun By Hansberry. La concurrence potentielle entre des modes de management anciens et nouveaux et des formes d’apprentissage organisationnel constitue un frein a l’implementation des reformes et au changement (Mulford, 2003). Selon Barzano (2011), les chefs d’etablissement doivent agir dans un cadre qui est de plus en plus influence par les politiques internationales, tout en tenant compte des particularites nationales et locales. Pressure. Ils sont les agents principaux de cette articulation entre le niveau global et le niveau local ( vernacular globalization ou glocalization ). A Raisin. Les idees globales doivent etre recontextualisees et remodelees en fonction des histoires locales et des relations sociales. Des tensions entre administration et pedagogie. Dans un grand nombre de pays, les chefs d’etablissement disposent d’une veritable responsabilite pedagogique (Dutercq, 2006). Of Outsider. Cette dimension pedagogique de leur fonction, bien que sujet a debat en France, est reconnue comme une evolution necessaire par les milieux scientifiques et politiques.

Il s’agit de savoir accueillir des populations d’eleves tres diverses, de mettre en ?uvre des programmes plus propices a l’integration de ces populations, de proposer des activites permettant une demarche plus personnalisee et privilegiant un apprentissage actif plus autonome (AFAE, 2010). In The Sun By Hansberry. Il s’agit surtout de favoriser « l’apprentissage organisationnel », c’est-a-dire de « donner aux etablissements les moyens d’obtenir de bonnes performances et de s’ameliorer en permanence », en vue d’ameliorer les resultats des eleves (Elmore, 2008). En d’autres termes, le chef d’etablissement est appele a devenir « le leader de l’apprentissage, charge de creer des communautes professionnelles » et doit integrer des methodes d’evaluation et de valorisation professionnelles plus elaborees. Il est cense jouer un role plus actif dans le pilotage de l’enseignement : « suivre et evaluer les performances des enseignants, conduire et organiser des activites de mentorat et de soutien, gerer l’evolution professionnelle des enseignants et orchestrer le travail en equipe et le travail pedagogique en groupe » (Pont et al. Summary. , 2008). 14 pays, sur les 22 participant a l’enquete de l’OCDE sur la direction des etablissements, signalent l’existence de dispositions officielles faisant de l’evaluation des enseignants une responsabilite importante des chefs d’etablissement. In The. Ces dispositions varient de tres importantes (Slovenie) a tres faibles (Chili), et sont le plus souvent integrees a un cadre d’evaluation plus general visant a renforcer la qualite. Burnt Norton Ts Eliot. Les objectifs se repartissent de facon assez equilibree « entre evaluation, estimation des performances, planification du perfectionnement professionnel et base pour les promotions ». In The Lorraine. L’entretien annuel avec le chef d’etablissement est une pratique courante, couplee ou non a d’autres methodes telles que l’observation en classe et l’examen des documents prepares par l’enseignant (plans de cours, donnees sur les resultats des eleves, examens par les pairs, auto-evaluations, etc.) (Pont et al. Burnt Norton. , 2008). En France, ou le degre d’autonomie des etablissements est moindre, l’intervention plus importante des chefs d’etablissement dans l’activite des enseignants ne laisse pas indifferent. In The Lorraine. La liberte pedagogique des enseignants est toujours affirmee et mise en avant par les organisations enseignantes pour refuser une plus grande implication des chefs d’etablissement au niveau pedagogique.

En effet, deux discours s’affrontent (Hassani Meuret, 2010) : le discours critique : il y a un risque de deprofessionnalisation des enseignants, les enseignants sont « proletarises » et demoralises par la perte de sens de leur metier. Of Outsider. Ils refusent l’application de « l’ideologie neoliberale » a l’ecole. A Raisin In The Lorraine Hansberry. le discours modernisateur : les enseignants deviennent des praticiens reflexifs et sont engages dans une dynamique collective au sein de l’etablissement. Of Outsider. L’Etat est un Etat regulateur et evaluateur. Des traditions nationales profondement ancrees. Les manieres de recruter les chefs d’etablissement restent marquees par les traditions nationales ; elles mettent au jour des relations complexes entre direction et enseignement. Sun By Lorraine. Ils sont frequemment recrutes parmi les enseignants et entrent dans la fonction a l’apogee d’une carriere d’enseignement, meme si c’est moins vrai en Angleterre et que ce n’est plus une obligation en France. Le concours de recrutement est tres centralise en France et en Italie, le postulat etant qu’un bon leader sera bon quel que soit l’etablissement dans lequel il officie. Computer Memory Types. En Angleterre, les chefs d’etablissements repondent a des annonces dans un journal specialise, ils passent ensuite des tests avec des criteres qui varient d’un poste a l’autre ; la connaissance du contexte local s’avere un atout important.

Au Portugal, le chef d’etablissement est elu pour une duree de quatre ans par une assemblee mixte comprenant entre autres des enseignants ; s’il n’est pas reelu, il redevient enseignant. A Raisin In The Sun By Lorraine Hansberry. Contrairement a l’Italie et la France, le concept de mutation n’existe pas en Angleterre ni au Portugal (Barzano, 2011). Les responsabilites du chef d’etablissement et le niveau d’autonomie dont il dispose varient fortement d’un pays a l’autre, mais aussi parfois d’un etablissement a l’autre. Computer. Ses attributions sont en effet plus ou moins reglementees. In The Sun By Lorraine Hansberry. Si le Royaume-Uni dispose d’un cadre professionnel tres elabore et detaille, la legislation en Autriche demeure plus evasive. Of Honey. Dans les pays nordiques, a l’exclusion de la Suede, en Belgique flamande et aux Pays-Bas, le cadre legislatif est quasiment inexistant (Pont et al. A Raisin In The Lorraine. , 2008).

« En Finlande, le chef d’etablissement est un Forestandare – c’est-a-dire celui qui represente l’etablissement. Nixon's Vietnamization. Au Danemark, il est l’Inspektor, celui qui supervise. A Raisin Sun By Hansberry. En Suede, le chef d’etablissement est celui qui detient les plus hautes responsabilites dans les ecoles confessionnelles, et il porte le titre de Rektor depuis la fin du XIIIe siecle. Nixon's Vietnamization. Au Royaume-Uni, les chefs d’etablissement sont des head teachers. Sun By Lorraine. » (Pont et al. Computer Types. , 2008). Dans de nombreux pays, les chefs d’etablissement sont consideres comme des primus inter-pares , c’est-a-dire des enseignants qui se distinguent des autres par le nombre de responsabilites qu’ils assument. In The Sun By. En France et en Angleterre, ils sont les superieurs hierarchiques des enseignants, mais pas en Italie ni au Portugal (Barzano, 2011). Summary. Ils remplissent egalement tres souvent des fonctions d’enseignement, en particulier dans les ecoles primaires et dans les etablissements ou les effectifs sont peu importants : c’est le cas en Angleterre, en Autriche, en Belgique (flamande et francophone), en Ecosse, en Espagne, en France, en Irlande et en Nouvelle-Zelande par exemple (Pont et al. In The Sun By Lorraine. , 2008).

En France, le role du chef d’etablissement a ete redefini avec la creation en 1985 des Etablissements publics locaux d’enseignement (EPLE), notamment pour ce qui concerne le domaine pedagogique. Computer Memory. Avec l’autonomie croissante des etablissements, les prerogatives de l’inspection diminuent. A Raisin Hansberry. Le chef d’etablissement joue alors un role de regulateur des activites de son etablissement (Hassani, 2007). Computer. Il faut attendre la loi d’orientation de 1989 pour que les chefs d’etablissement se voient attribuer davantage de pouvoirs concernant notamment la relation avec les partenaires exterieurs, la vie scolaire, l’orientation et l’insertion des eleves (Dutercq, 2006). In The Lorraine. Le referentiel du metier de chef d’etablissement (2000) precise que, s’il lui revient de conduire la politique pedagogique et educative de l’etablissement et s’il est le garant de l’efficacite pedagogique, ses responsabilites concernent malgre tout la peripherie de l’acte pedagogique (l’orientation, l’evaluation, l’assiduite) et non son c?ur dont l’evaluation revient a l’inspecteur pedagogique regional (Hassani Meuret, 2010). Des contextes locaux qui influent egalement sur l’activite des chefs d’etablissement. Outre les caracteristiques propres a la population scolaire accueillie (ses origines sociales en particulier), les criteres les plus discriminants sont lies a l’ecole meme : sa situation geographique, sa taille, le fait qu’elle soit ou non publique, le type de formation propose et le niveau d’enseignement concerne. Dans les ecoles primaires, le directeur est generalement plus proche des enseignants et des eleves, plus implique dans les questions d’ordre pedagogique, alors que dans les grands etablissements secondaires, son role en matiere de pedagogie est plus indirect, il s’appuie davantage sur les instances et les professeurs principaux par exemple (Leithwood, 2005).

Une profession qui doit devenir plus attrayante. Une profession vieillissante, surmenee et peu valorisee. D’apres les travaux de l’OCDE (Pont et al. Pressure. , 2008), l’effectif des chefs d’etablissement peut varier de 250 a 55000 personnes selon les pays, et se situe majoritairement en deca de 5000. In The Sun By Hansberry. Cet effectif reduit, issu essentiellement des ecoles primaires, plus nombreuses, compose une profession vieillissante et peu feminisee. Of Honey Characters. Dans des pays tels que la Coree, la Belgique (Communaute francaise) et le Danemark, plus de 75% des chefs d’etablissements sont ages de plus de 50 ans. In The Sun By Hansberry. Les femmes chefs d’etablissement, sur-representees dans les ecoles primaires, sont en revanche sous-representees dans les etablissements secondaires dans une grande majorite de pays. 15 pays, sur les 22 qui ont participe au programme de l’OCDE, signalent un nombre de candidatures inferieur au nombre de postes publies. Arterial. Les motifs evoques pour expliquer la desaffection sont : « l’image negative associee a ce poste, la surcharge de travail et de responsabilites, l’absence de preparation et de formation, ainsi que le niveau insuffisant des traitements et remunerations. In The Sun By. » (Pont et al. Arterial Pressure. , 2008). Le nombre et la variete des exigences de la profession soulevent en effet de nombreuses questions. In The. En Angleterre, les chefs d’etablissement effectuent des horaires hebdomadaires souvent longs (54h dans le primaire et 65h dans le secondaire en moyenne) ; 61% d’entre eux evoquent un desequilibre entre leur vie professionnelle et leur vie privee (PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2007).

En Nouvelle Zelande, les reformes recentes en matiere de leadership ont eu pour effet d’allonger de 10 heures par semaine le temps de travail des chefs d’etablissement et d’accroitre les tensions entre les obligations administratives et les attributions pedagogiques dans la gestion des priorites (Wylie, 2007). Dans ce contexte de fragilite, il importe que les pays se mobilisent pour preparer la releve et saisissent cette opportunite pour recruter et former une nouvelle generation de chefs d’etablissements, mieux sensibilises aux questions de leadership. Ts Eliot. Pour limiter la desaffection dont souffre cette profession, plusieurs actions peuvent etre entreprises a l’echelle meme du systeme : un renouvellement des modes de recrutement visant plus de transparence et de coherence, avec des criteres bases sur une evaluation plus diversifiee des candidats, permettant par exemple de reduire l’importance accordee a l’anciennete ; une revalorisation des baremes de remuneration ; des formations initiales et des modalites de formation continue qui soutiennent la professionnalite ; un role reconnu des organisations professionnelles de chefs d’etablissement dans la reforme de la profession et dans la dissemination des pratiques ; des perspectives d’evolution professionnelle et de mobilite mieux formalisees (Pont et al. In The Sun By Lorraine. , 2008). Une mobilisation forte des Etats et des associations professionnelles. Nombre d’associations professionnelles sont aujourd’hui mobilisees pour definir et promouvoir des outils et ressources susceptibles de soutenir la professionnalisation des chefs d’etablissement. Nixon's. La creation en 2010 de l’ Australian Institute for a raisin in the sun by lorraine, Teaching and burnt norton ts eliot School Leadership temoigne de l’interet australien pour la promotion de l’excellence au travers de normes partagees par la profession. Lorraine. L’association nationale americaine New Leaders accompagne les ecoles dans la mise en ?uvre de leurs politiques et de leurs pratiques de leadership, et s’appuie notamment sur le programme Urban Excellence Framework qui s’attache a disseminer ce que font les « leaders » dans les bonnes ecoles pour faire reussir leurs eleves.

Le National College for of honey characters, School Leadership en Angleterre joue un role cle dans la definition du cadre reglementaire de la profession et dans la conception d’une offre de formation a l’echelle nationale. En Europe, le reseau European Qualification Network for a raisin sun by, Effective School Leadership joue egalement un role cle dans la dissemination des pratiques de leadership, tandis que le reseau d’experts European Policy Network on summary of outsider School Leadership , recemment cree par la Commission europeenne, cherche a developper des synergies plus etroites entre les decideurs, les chercheurs et les professionnels du leadership. Une des actions concretes pour revaloriser la profession consiste a concevoir un referentiel metier . Lorraine. Ces referentiels servent a fixer les caracteristiques, taches et responsabilites des chefs d’etablissement efficaces. Arterial. Ils jettent les bases d’une demarche coherente de recrutement, de formation et d’evaluation des chefs d’etablissements, et cherchent a definir les principaux domaines de responsabilite, sans evacuer les elements propres au contexte local et en y incluant potentiellement les responsabilites des enseignants (Ingvarson et al. In The Sun By Hansberry. , 2006). Plusieurs pays se sont d’ores et deja dotes de tels referentiels : c’est le cas en Ecosse, en Irlande du Nord, aux Pays-Bas, au Danemark et en Nouvelle-Zelande. Norton Ts Eliot. Ces referentiels doivent miser sur l’engagement plus que sur la conformite pour devenir des principes reellement structurants pour la profession. Hansberry. Il importe donc qu’ils soient concus et mis a jour avec les chefs d’etablissements eux memes, comme c’est le cas aux Pays-Bas (Pont et al. Burnt Norton Ts Eliot. , 2008).

Comment recruter, former et accompagner les chefs d’etablissement ? Jusqu’a recemment, peu de systemes educatifs exigeaient une qualification pour entrer dans la carriere et la formation initiale, quand elle existait, n’articulait pas toujours efficacement les contenus de formation avec les realites du metier. Lorraine. Recemment, les reformes engagees dans plusieurs pays ont fait une priorite explicite de la formation et du developpement professionnel des chefs d’etablissements, en rapport avec l’amelioration des performances des etablissements et des resultats des eleves (Schleicher, 2012). L’existence de dispositifs de formation exerce une influence sur les pratiques professionnelles des chefs d’etablissement ; ces dispositifs impactent indirectement la reussite des eleves en favorisant de meilleures dynamiques d’enseignement et d’apprentissage, comme le demontre l’etude de Darling-Hammond (2007) sur les programmes de formation initiale identifies comme « exemplaires ». A Taste Of Honey Characters. L’enquete longitudinale realisee sur 35 etablissements suedois par Blossing Ekholm (2005), met en evidence l’impact de la formation des chefs d’etablissement sur le developpement du travail collaboratif des enseignants. A Raisin Hansberry. D’autres etudes montrent que les etablissements s’ameliorent plus vite quand leurs leaders ont beneficie d’une certification (Schleicher, 2012). Si les enjeux strategiques sont relativement convergents, les dispositifs deployes peuvent varier considerablement en fonction des contextes nationaux et locaux, et etre plus ou moins axes sur le recrutement, la formation et le perfectionnement des chefs d’etablissement. Arterial. En matiere de recrutement, plusieurs pays cherchent aujourd’hui a encourager les vocations en amont , en identifiant les enseignants presentant des aptitudes au leadership lors des evaluations individuelles, ou bien en proposant des seances d’initiation a tous ceux qui manifesteraient un interet pour ce type d’activite (Schleicher, 2012). Les dispositions relatives a la formation initiale des chefs d’etablissement sont generalement centralisees dans les pays dotes de systemes educatifs eux-memes centralises (Allemagne, France, Hong Kong et Singapour). Sun By Lorraine. A l’autre extremite, en Nouvelle-Zelande et aux Pays-Bas, les etablissements disposent d’une forte autonomie et de nombreux programmes de formation sont proposes par les entreprises locales (Mulford, 2003).

Dans la majorite des pays, des mesures d’accompagnement existent. Pressure. Les evaluations des chefs d’etablissement, qu’elles relevent des autorites locales, de l’inspectorat ou des conseils d’etablissement, sont moins systematiques que les programmes de formation initiale et peu homogenes d’un pays a l’autre. A Raisin Hansberry. Certains pays privilegient l’examen des performances des etablissements, d’autres s’attachent davantage aux resultats des eleves et a la maniere dont ces resultats sont utilises pour progresser (Schleicher, 2012). Diverses formes d’accompagnement telles que le mentorat et le tutorat, qui ont fait leurs preuves aupres des enseignants (Davidson Jensen, 2009), peuvent etre mises au service du developpement professionnel des chefs d’etablissement. Summary. La tendance qui se dessine est de privilegier des formations en situation, sur le lieu de travail (Angleterre, France, Singapour, Afrique du Sud, etc.). A Raisin Sun By Lorraine. Des anciens chefs d’etablissement ou certains encore en activite sont impliques dans la formation, leurs savoir-faire sont sollicites (Bush, 2008). Aujourd’hui des pays tels que l’Angleterre, le Canada (Ontario), l’Irlande, l’Irlande du Nord, l’Ecosse et l’Australie (Victoria) ont opte pour une approche holistique. Of Multidisciplinary Perspectives. Ils ont tous mis en ?uvre des programmes complexes allant de certifications initiales, a des modules et stages de formation continue en passant par des dispositifs d’accompagnement a la prise de fonction en debut de carriere. A Raisin In The Sun By Hansberry. Ces programmes sont souvent integres a des strategies plus globales pour ameliorer l’ecole et sont generalement concues par une institution ou une organisation nationale, telle que le National College for arterial, School Leadership en Angleterre (Schleicher, 2012). Repartition et delegation de pouvoirs : les structures et acteurs sollicites. Des equipes de direction et conseils d’etablissement elargis.

Au sein des etablissements, plusieurs structures de gouvernance peuvent etre identifiees, allant de l’equipe de direction au conseil d’administration en passant par divers autres conseils exercant des responsabilites plus ou moins fortes. Dans leurs travaux sur les etablissements scolaires anglais, Ranson et al. Sun By Lorraine Hansberry. (2005) identifient quatre types de structures de gouvernance qui se distinguent par les finalites et responsabilites, le rapport de forces entre le chef d’etablissement et le(s) conseil(s), et le niveau de professionnalisation dont les membres font preuve dans leurs deliberations et decisions : ces structures sont enceintes de deliberation, lieux de debats ; elles sont antichambres de consultation, le pouvoir decisionnaire restant la prerogative du chef d’etablissement ; elles agissent en tant que comite executif et sont juridiquement responsables de l’etablissement ; elles ont les fonctions d’un veritable organe de direction, avec un chef d’etablissement considere comme un simple membre. Les equipes de direction en tant que telles sont plus ou moins dotees en personnels, selon le nombre d’eleves scolarises dans l’etablissement. Nixon's. Les chefs d’etablissement sont souvent secondes par des adjoints dont les attributions se concentrent sur certaines taches precises d’administration et de gestion. Sun By. Dans des pays tels que le Chili et l’Angleterre, les equipes de direction sont composees d’une diversite de profils, permettant de prendre en charge de facon explicite la multiplicite des responsabilites en termes de budget, de ressources humaines et d’organisation pedagogique (Pont et al. Perspectives Essay. , 2008).

Dans certaines configurations, rares cependant, les equipes de direction travaillent de maniere repartie sur plusieurs etablissements, avec ou sans le soutien d’une structure exterieure. Lorraine. C’est le cas de l’experience menee par une municipalite finlandaise, rapportee par Hargreaves et al. Burnt Norton Ts Eliot. (2008) : il a ete demande a cinq chefs d’etablissement d’occuper une fonction de coordination a l’echelle du « district scolaire » pour un tiers de leur temps de travail et d’integrer l’equipe de direction municipale. A Raisin Sun By Lorraine Hansberry. Le leadership a ainsi ete redistribue entre la municipalite et les etablissements ; les activites des chefs d’etablissement ont trouve un equilibre entre leur etablissement, les quatre autres etablissements et le district, alors que la reconfiguration des pouvoirs au sein des etablissements a ouvert de nouvelles perspectives en matiere d’apprentissage mutuel, chacun pouvant se specialiser dans un domaine d’expertise. Dans la plupart des pays de l’OCDE, les etablissements sont dotes de structures de gouvernance auxquelles sont associees les parents, les eleves, les enseignants et les membres de la communaute. Advantages Of Multidisciplinary Perspectives. Ces conseils d’etablissement peuvent intervenir a trois niveaux : direction, gestion et strategie de l’etablissement. Lorraine. Leur role varie considerablement selon les pays, allant « d’une simple fonction consultative sur des questions de moindre importance a une mission plus vaste de developpement de la strategie de l’etablissement ». Advantages Perspectives. Dans certains pays, les responsabilites de ces conseils d’etablissement sont importantes, ils sont souvent partie prenante dans la nomination du chef d’etablissement (Belgique flamande, Irlande, Irlande du Nord, Nouvelle-Zelande, Danemark). A Raisin In The. Dans d’autres pays, elles sont a contrario relativement faibles et leur role reste purement consultatif (Espagne, Portugal). Of Honey. Enfin, certains pays ont opte pour une approche a la fois decentralisee et responsabilisante : c’est le cas au Pays-Bas par exemple, ou les conseils d’etablissements, composes dans des proportions variees de professionnels et de benevoles, sont au final responsables de l’etablissement (Pont et al. A Raisin Sun By Hansberry. , 2008).

Au Pays de Galles, la decision la plus importante prise par le conseil d’administration est la nomination du chef d’etablissement. Memory Types. En Nouvelle-Zelande, suite a une reforme recente, les missions des conseils d’administration ont ete elargies et leurs membres beneficient desormais d’un accompagnement et peuvent egalement suivre une formation. A Raisin Sun By Hansberry. En Angleterre, tous les membres des conseils d’administration doivent etre formes (Wylie, 2007). Nixon's Vietnamization. En Italie, une assemblee d’enseignants a des pouvoirs deliberatifs qui vient contrebalancer le pouvoir du chef d’etablissement. In The Lorraine. Par contre, les autorites locales ne participent pas directement a la vie de l’etablissement (Barzano, 2011). Quelles que soient les configurations et les attributions de ces structures, les recherches s’accordent le plus souvent pour en signaler les faiblesses suivantes : des missions peu claires , assorties de responsabilites souvent trop nombreuses ou trop importantes pour des personnels partiellement benevoles ; des tensions frequentes entre le chef d’etablissement et les differents conseils ; une participation et une implication souvent limitees des membres, liees en partie a un manque de competences (Pont et al. Of Multidisciplinary Essay. , 2008). In The Sun By Hansberry. Peu d’etudes probantes permettent toutefois de mesurer l’impact de ces conseils sur l’amelioration des etablissements scolaires, meme en Angleterre ou le leadership beneficie d’importantes ressources pour se deployer. Nixon's Vietnamization. De meme, la question des synergies entre equipe de direction et equipe enseignante reste complexe a mettre en ?uvre en France (AFAE, 2010). Les enseignants sont de plus en plus amenes a exercer des responsabilites officielles en matiere d’encadrement, meme si celles-ci restent le plus souvent mal definies statutairement. A Raisin In The Sun By Lorraine Hansberry. Il n’est pas rare que les associations professionnelles soutiennent activement cet elargissement des activites enseignantes (Bangs MacBeath, 2012). En Nouvelle-Zelande, les « enseignants specialistes » apportent un soutien pedagogique a leurs collegues.

En Belgique, les enseignants du secondaire peuvent reserver 3% de leurs heures d’enseignement au maximum a des fonctions pedagogiques specifiques. Of Multidisciplinary. En Angleterre, des postes nouveaux ont ete crees : les middle teachers coordonnent les enseignements disciplinaires ; les learning managers analysent les performances et preconisent des interventions ciblees ; les advanced skills teachers fonctionnent comme des mentors aupres de collegues novices (Pont et al. A Raisin. , 2008). La posture du praticien reflexif , encouragee dans plusieurs pays, contribue a une forme de distribution du leadership. Burnt Ts Eliot. Au Japon, il existe des adjoints formels et des adjoints informels. A Raisin In The Sun By Lorraine. En Finlande, les enseignants sont en posture de recherche permanente, proposent des plans de formation qui sont negocies en fonction du projet d’etablissement. A Taste Of Honey Characters. Au Royaume-Uni et en Suede, on a raisin sun by hansberry favorise la circulation des savoirs et le soutien professionnel (Laderriere, 2008). Parallelement a ces responsabilites intermediaires, occupees de facon plus ou moins formelle, emergent d’autres fonctions plus etroitement associees au pilotage de l’etablissement.

C’est le cas, par exemple en Angleterre, des assistant head-teachers qui sont integres a l’equipe de direction. Advantages Of Multidisciplinary. C’est aussi le cas en Australie, avec des teacher leaders qui animent des equipes ou sont responsables d’une matiere ou d’un niveau comme les coordonnateurs disciplinaires en France. Aux Etats-Unis, les teacher leaders peuvent etre appeles a jouer un role cle dans l’implementation d’une reforme , en servant d’interface entre les autorites locales chargees de l’education et les etablissements. In The Hansberry. Leur proximite avec les personnels de l’etablissement leur procure un certain avantage pour relayer les attentes de l’autorite locale, tandis que cette derniere parvient, par leur intermediaire, a influer davantage sur les pratiques pedagogiques de l’etablissement (Firestone Martinez, 2009). Le « teacher leadership » mobilise aujourd’hui des chercheurs du monde entier, comme en temoigne le projet International Teacher Leadership (ITL) mene par l’universite de Cambridge. Of Outsider. L’existence d’associations telles que le Teacher Leadership Exploratory Consortium aux Etats-Unis, rassemblant a la fois les institutions de recherche et les syndicats professionnels, est egalement une illustration de l’interet porte au leadership enseignant. Le theme n’est pourtant pas nouveau. Lorraine. Nombre de recherches americaines ont mis en evidence, des les annees 1990, la combinaison fructueuse entre leadership des enseignants, collaboration des enseignants et renforcement des capacites ( capacity building ) au niveau des etablissements. Summary. Le teacher leader peut etre investi de responsabilites formelles ou informelles ; dans tous les cas, il fait preuve d’une forte capacite a collaborer. Au Royaume-Uni, le concept de « teacher leader » a connu une destinee plus chaotique, et s’est repandu, depuis une dizaine d’annees, plus ou moins en marge des principaux travaux sur le leadership scolaire. In The Lorraine. Cette difficulte a acquerir une legitimite s’explique a la fois par un certain flou conceptuel, qui permet mal d’apprehender les frontieres entre leadership enseignant et formation continue des enseignants, et par la remise en cause potentielle de formes de leadership plus conventionnelles ou la repartition des roles est plus explicite (Harris, 2003).

4. Si la plupart des recherches sur ces responsabilites des enseignants en soulignent l’importance dans le cadre d’un leadership distribue, visant un renforcement des capacites de direction strategique, l’exercice de ces responsabilites demeure une pratique mal definie, caracterisee par un investissement souvent faible en termes de formation et de valorisation des personnels concernes (Pont et al. Burnt Norton Ts Eliot. , 2008). Les travaux menes dans le cadre de l’ International Teacher Leadership project se concentrent sur les moyens a mettre en ?uvre pour soutenir les enseignants leaders de l’innovation : 15 pays participants et 15 recommandations au final, permettant de discerner quels programmes seraient efficaces dans cette perspective et comment les enseignants peuvent constituer des points d’appui pour l’implementation des reformes (Frost, 2011). Du leadership distribue au leadership systemique ? Un horizon commun, des conceptions et pratiques diversifiees. Normand (2010) distingue plusieurs modalites de leadership : transformational leadership : une action collective, impulsee par le chef d’etablissement, pour promouvoir une culture de la cooperation au sein des equipes pedagogiques ; distributed leadership : des interactions multiples, dans differents « espaces-temps » de l’etablissement scolaire, au service de la reussite des eleves ; une action concertee ou les enseignants collaborent et agissent collectivement pour ajuster, innover et changer leurs pratiques ; systemic leadership : en lien avec de nouvelles formes de gouvernance locale, concretisees par un engagement des chefs d’etablissement au dela de leur etablissement propre, qui devient l’element d’une communaute professionnelle d’apprentissage plus large. D’apres les travaux experimentaux de Spillane et al. A Raisin Hansberry. (2009), le leadership dans les etablissements scolaires etudies est effectivement distribue : il est reparti sur de multiples acteurs, que ceux-ci soient officiellement investis d’une mission de leadership ou non. Memory. Ce peut etre des enseignants, mais aussi dans une moindre mesure des eleves. A Raisin. Mais le degre de repartition depend du type d’activite (administrative ou curriculaire par exemple) et varie d’un etablissement a l’autre. Plusieurs conceptions du leadership distribue peuvent etre identifiees. Arterial Pressure. Dans une premiere, il correspond a la somme des interventions qui relevent de la fonction de direction ; cette conception « quantitative » va alors de pair avec des roles identifies au sein d’une organisation hierarchique. A Raisin Lorraine Hansberry. Les modalites de mise en ?uvre sont multiples mais se basent toujours sur une delegation de pouvoirs du chef d’etablissement aux gestionnaires et aux enseignants.

Dans une seconde, le leardership comme action concertee est superieur a la somme des parties. Computer Types. Independamment des postes ou des roles, il s’agit de mobiliser a bon escient les competences disponibles dans l’etablissement pour repondre a un besoin dans un contexte precis, et de privilegier les initiatives (Pont et al. A Raisin In The Sun By. , 2008). Nixon's. Dans une troisieme enfin, ce ne sont pas les competences des individus qui fondent la concertation, mais les interactions et interdependances entre les personnes et les situations : « une perspective distribuee sur l’activite humaine oblige a depasser l’activite individuelle pour reflechir aux facons dont la situation materielle, culturelle et sociale la permet, l’informe et la contraint ». In The Lorraine Hansberry. Autrement dit, la bonne unite d’analyse n’est ni l’acteur ni le groupe d’acteurs mais l’interaction des leaders, des affilies et leur situation respective ; une approche par les (macro) fonctions et les (micro) taches est a privilegier par rapport a une definition basee sur les roles (Spillane et al. Pressure. , 2008). L’examen des pratiques de repartition des fonctions de direction en Angleterre a permis de dresser une typologie des differentes strategies deployees dans les etablissements scolaires (PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2007) : dans le modele traditionnel , frequent dans les ecoles primaires, l’equipe de direction est composee d’un directeur seconde par un ou plusieurs adjoints et par des enseignants qualifies formellement impliques ; dans le modele gere, plus frequent dans les ecoles secondaires et plus flexible, la structure de direction peut inclure un personnel experimente et encourage l’adoption de methodes plus innovantes ; le modele a instances multiples , variante du modele gere, combine une grande diversite de profils dans l’equipe de direction et un mode de fonctionnement qui s’appuie sur des instances plus nombreuses, permettant de faciliter l’acces des familles a des services d’aide varies ; le modele federe se caracterise par une collaboration inter-etablissements, avec la mise en place potentielle d’un organe exterieur de direction ; le modele de direction a l’echelle du systeme educatif, avec des chefs d’etablissement qui interviennent dans des structures susceptibles d’influer sur le systeme educatif meme. Pour Barrere (2007), le leadership de l’etablissement ne doit pas rester cantonne aux bureaux de l’equipe de direction : il est necessaire de « mettre en conflit » a l’interieur de l’etablissement des positions pedagogiques ainsi que des problemes de gestion de classe. A Raisin In The Sun By Hansberry. Les reponses doivent etre trouvees collectivement. Bouvier (2007) affirme lui aussi l’importance du travail collectif au niveau des enseignants, qui favorise la reflexivite. Burnt Norton Ts Eliot. Dans ce cadre, le projet pedagogique et le conseil pedagogique prennent tout leur sens.

Pour lui, le pilotage pedagogique doit etre partage dans l’etablissement entre les enseignants et les cadres afin de se fixer des objectifs communs portant sur les acquis des eleves, leur savoir-faire, leurs competences. In The Sun By Lorraine. Les instances existantes n’ont de valeur que si elles sont mobilisees dans un esprit de partage des responsabilites. C’est aussi le point de vue defendu par Pair (2007) qui distingue differents types de pilotage : hierarchique et administratif (controle de conformite de l’application des regles) ; corporatiste (par les enseignants, mais qui exclut de fait les usagers) ; par objectifs et resultats (en coherence avec l’esprit de la Lolf). Nixon's. Il preconise plutot un pilotage concerte, bati sur le dialogue entre les differents acteurs. A Raisin. « Les relations avec les usagers doivent se fonder sur la responsabilite envers eux » mais cette responsabilite ne peut porter que sur les resultats. Memory. « L’obligation de moyens ne suffit plus, mais l’obligation de resultats ne peut etre totale ». A Raisin In The Sun By Lorraine. Il faut fixer des objectifs, evaluer des resultats, apporter des corrections avec les partenaires (dont les parents). Summary. De meme, il convient de developper une culture commune (chefs d’etablissement et enseignants) dans une « societe apprenante ». Sun By Lorraine Hansberry. C’est ce qu’il appelle une « regulation par le sens ». Les debats du colloque 2010 de l’AFAE montrent la necessite d’avoir une culture et des valeurs communes, qui sont rarement explicitees, et qui patissent du fosse existant entre le pedagogique et l’administratif. Of Outsider. Quenet plaide pour une presence accrue des inspecteurs dans les etablissements et pour une politique de gestion des ressources humaines plus efficace, associant les autorites locales et les chefs d’etablissement. A Raisin Sun By Lorraine. Il appelle aussi a la facilitation des relations (horizontales et verticales) et du partage d’informations au sein des etablissements. Of Honey. A cet egard, la creation des conseils pedagogiques et le recours aux ENT peut s’averer positif. Lorraine Hansberry. Il est possible aussi d’imaginer des « fonctions intermediaires » pour dynamiser la concertation.

Le chef d’etablissement doit etre un « leader a l’expertise reconnue. Summary. Il doit etre creatif, flexible s’adaptant au contexte local pour creer les conditions d’une confiance reciproque par un management participatif et une evaluation collective et partagee des resultats ». A Raisin In The Sun By Hansberry. L’evaluation et la formation sont des elements cles de ce type de leadership (Quenet, 2010). Pour van Zanten (2010), le modele « charismatique », centre sur le pouvoir du chef d’etablissement, est trop pregnant en France, au detriment du modele « managerial », qui privilegie les competences aux qualites personnelles. Types. Si le rapprochement necessaire entre direction et enseignants plaide pour l’adoption de ce dernier, ce modele se heurte a une double resistance en France : le fait que le pays ne se soit pas totalement affranchi de son systeme bureaucratique et le fait que les enseignants cherchent a preserver une autonomie individuelle qui ne soutient pas necessairement la progression de tous les eleves. A Raisin Sun By. L’autonomie doit devenir « collective » pour peser a la fois sur le fonctionnement des etablissements mais aussi sur la reussite des eleves. Le leadership distribue semble faire consensus. Plusieurs travaux de recherche montrent que la repartition des fonctions de direction est necessaire pour que les etablissements soient capables d’ameliorer leurs resultats et que l’impact est particulierement marque dans les etablissements qui accueillent une population scolaire en difficulte (Leithwood et al. Burnt. , 2010). In The Sun By Lorraine Hansberry. Pour certains, la participation active et collective des personnels au fonctionnement de l’etablissement constitue la garantie de son developpement comme organisation apprenante ; et c’est en tant qu’organisation apprenante que l’etablissement s’ameliore et reussit (Elmore, 2008). Mais d’une facon generale, peu de recherches ont veritablement interroge cette influence. Summary Of Outsider. Pour Bennett et al. In The Sun By Lorraine. (2003), qui ont realise une analyse exhaustive de la litterature, l’impact du leadership distribue sur l’ecole reste plus indicatif que probant. Of Outsider. Anderson et al. Sun By Lorraine. (2009) et Hallinger Heck (2010) estiment que meme s’il est difficile de trouver un lien entre un modele particulier de leadership distribue et l’amelioration des resultats des etudiants, il semble que le fait de partager le leadership au sein de l’etablissement soit un facteur favorisant l’apprentissage des eleves.

D’apres Leithwood et al. Nixon's Vietnamization. (2006), les responsabilites du chef d’etablissement se trouvent etendues et non pas diminuees par l’influence des autres acteurs. In The Sun By Lorraine. Ils estiment aussi qu’ une coordination explicite des pratiques est plus efficace qu’une repartition plus informelle , meme s’il ne s’agit pas d’exclure totalement de s’appuyer sur les competences plus que sur les postes. Nixon's Vietnamization. Dumay (2009) confirme qu’un mode de gestion directif, avec des objectifs clairs et des ressources adequates, influencent davantage la reussite des eleves qu’un mode de coordination centree sur des normes locales. Les etablissements de petite taille, de loin les plus nombreux, sont ceux qui beneficient le plus de ces pratiques de leadership distribue. In The Sun By Lorraine Hansberry. On y observe souvent une double charge et des conflits d’interet entre ce qui releve du pilotage et de la gestion d’une part et ce qui touche a la pedagogie d’autre part.

Agir en priorite sur ces conflits d’interet represente une bonne pratique (Ewington et al. Summary Of Outsider. , 2008). Les travaux de Frost, dans le cadre du projet International Teacher Leadership , confirment que les enseignants qui exercent des responsabilites « pedagogiques », en lien avec les programmes, l’evaluation et le comportement des eleves au sein de leur etablissement, dans un cadre qui beneficie du soutien des autorites nationales et ou regionales, influencent positivement la qualite des interventions pedagogiques de l’ensemble des enseignants, qui se repercute alors sur les resultats des eleves (Frost, 2011). Quel cout du leadership distribue ? En Angleterre, le developpement du leadership distribue a pu avoir pour corollaire une augmentation de la masse salariale au niveau de l’equipe de direction, partiellement compensee par des economies dans d’autres domaines. A Raisin Lorraine. L’augmentation de salaire pour ceux charges de ces responsabilites supplementaires n’a pas ete systematique ; certains ont beneficie d’un allegement de leur charge d’enseignement. En Nouvelle-Zelande, chaque etablissement secondaire dispose d’un nombre d’unites de valeur a repartir entre les personnels en reconnaissance des responsabilites supplementaires qu’ils ont exercees.

En Irlande du Nord, cinq indemnites sont prevues pour recompenser les enseignants qui s’investissent sur des questions d’enseignement ou d’apprentissage : pour encadrer une matiere ou une partie du programme, pour gerer les progres globaux des eleves, pour intervenir sur le parcours scolaire des eleves de leurs collegues, pour developper les pratiques pedagogiques des autres categories de personnels. Burnt Ts Eliot. Ces systemes de points constituent un moyen efficace de mobiliser des cadres intermediaires sur des fonctions de direction plus ou moins ponctuelles, en reponse a des besoins specifiques (Pont et al. A Raisin Sun By Lorraine. , 2008). Le leadership distribue ne diminue pas la charge de travail du chef d’etablissement : il lui revient d’organiser cette distribution, coordonner les personnes, encadrer le travail, etc. Types. (Leithwood et al. Sun By Hansberry. , 2009). Les conditions d’un effet positif sur les apprentissages. Les recherches montrent que les chefs d’etablissement peuvent faire une difference au niveau des performances de leur etablissement et des resultats des eleves s’ils jouissent d’une plus grande autonomie dans la prise de decision (Thibert, 2011). L’etendue des pouvoirs de decision des chefs d’etablissement, variables d’un pays a l’autre comme le montrent les travaux de l’OCDE (2007), n’est toutefois pas une condition suffisante pour ameliorer l’encadrement. Vietnamization. Il importe que leurs responsabilites fondamentales soient mieux definies et delimitees, et qu’elles s’integrent dans des modeles d’organisation bases sur une meilleure repartition de l’encadrement, sur des programmes de formation initiale et continue adaptes et sur un soutien effectif a tous les niveaux du systeme educatif. Certains domaines d’actions en matiere de leadership ont une plus grande incidence que d’autres sur l’enseignement et l’apprentissage. Hansberry. L’OCDE recense quatre types de responsabilites essentiels pour ameliorer les resultats des eleves (Pont et al. Advantages Essay. , 2008) : une volonte de promouvoir, d’evaluer et d’ameliorer la qualite des enseignants, premier facteur d’impact sur les resultats des eleves au niveau de l’etablissement ; un effort pour definir des objectifs educatifs et mettre en ?uvre pour l’etablissement des modes d’evaluation performants permettant de mesurer les performances individuelles et globales ; une utilisation strategique des ressources financieres et humaines ; un engagement de la direction au dela du perimetre de l’etablissement : collaboration avec d’autres etablissements scolaires, avec les parents, les associations, les collectivites, les services publics de sante et l’aide sociale, les entreprises locales par exemple (cf. In The Lorraine Hansberry. travaux de Fullan et Hargreaves). Promouvoir, evaluer et ameliorer le travail des enseignants.

Ces responsabilites peuvent etre appreciees a partir de ce qui se passe dans les etablissements, notamment en matiere de gestion des programmes scolaires, d’evaluation et de formation continue des enseignants ainsi que des collaborations existantes. Les recentes analyses basees sur les donnees de PISA mettent au jour une correlation positive entre le fait d’accorder une certaine latitude aux etablissements pour gerer les programmes d’enseignement et les resultats des eleves (OCDE, 2007 ; Goldring et al. Computer. , 2007). Sun By Lorraine Hansberry. La meta-analyse de Robinson et al. Arterial Pressure. (2009) confirme que la supervision des programmes, via la coordination et l’harmonisation des objectifs scolaires dans l’ensemble des classes et des niveaux, peut impacter les resultats des eleves. Hansberry. Avec Marzano et al. Of Honey. (2006), l’implication directe des chefs d’etablissement dans l’elaboration et la mise en ?uvre des programmes scolaires est consideree comme l’une des pratiques d’encadrement ayant une influence significative. Evaluation et formation continue des enseignants. Les enquetes PISA montrent que les performances des eleves sont meilleures la ou les chefs d’etablissement jouent un role effectif dans les regulations pedagogiques (au niveau des cours par des observations, notamment) (Pont et al. A Raisin In The Lorraine. , 2008). Computer Types. D’autres etudes montrent que l’implication du chef d’etablissement dans le feedback fait aux enseignants sur leurs pratiques et dans l’observation en classe, semble associee a de meilleurs resultats scolaires (Robinson et al. In The Sun By Lorraine. , 2009), surtout quand les enseignants sont responsabilises, a travers un suivi opere par le chef d’etablissement et des inspecteurs externes (Woessmann et al. Norton Ts Eliot. , 2007).

Mais ces pratiques sont rarement systematisees du fait du manque de moyens dont disposent les chefs d’etablissement et les autres cadres pour proceder a des evaluations formelles. Pour Robinson et al. A Raisin Hansberry. (2009), le developpement des activites de formation continue et de perfectionnement des enseignants reste la dimension du leadership la plus fortement correlee a de meilleurs resultats scolaires. Nixon's Vietnamization. Pour Leithwood et al. In The Sun By Lorraine. (2006) et Marzano et al. Nixon's Vietnamization. (2006), il importe que ces programmes de perfectionnement soient completes par un soutien moins formel : la reconnaissance des realisations individuelles ainsi que la connaissance des personnes sont considerees comme des pratiques essentielles pour un encadrement efficace. Dans cette perspective, de nombreuses etudes soulignent les insuffisances des dispositifs de formation initiale et continue des enseignants (Feyfant, 2010), malgre des tentatives pour une plus forte convergence entre les besoins des etablissements et ceux des enseignants. La tendance actuelle serait au renforcement de la marge de man?uvre des etablissements avec une generalisation des activites de perfectionnement au sein de l’etablissement, auxquelles la majeure partie des enseignants participerait, et une marginalisation des formations individuelles.

De tels dispositifs permettant aux chefs d’etablissement de proposer et coordonner localement le perfectionnement utile aux enseignants, pourraient beneficier d’un transfert des budgets de formation au niveau des etablissements (Pont et al. In The Hansberry. , 2008). Developpement du travail collaboratif. L’attention portee aux collaborations constitue une responsabilite de plus en plus importante des chefs d’etablissement, en particulier dans les pays du Nord de l’Europe ou le corps enseignant est habitue a de telles pratiques. Burnt Norton Ts Eliot. Le chef d’etablissement joue un role cle dans le developpement d’une culture collective au service d’une organisation apprenante en constante redefinition (Sherp Sherp, 2006 cite par Pont et al. A Raisin Sun By Hansberry. , 2008). A Taste Characters. Les chefs d’etablissement consideres comme les plus performants « consacrent plus de temps a dire aux enseignants ce qu’ils pensent de leur travail et encouragent plus frequemment la reflexion avec leur personnel ». In The Hansberry. Ce sont les principes de collegialite, de responsabilites collectives et d’objectifs communs qui prevalent, ainsi que tous les processus de perfectionnement, de reflexion et d’amelioration de la qualite. Vietnamization. L’enseignement n’est plus l’affaire d’un individu isole dans sa classe, mais s’entend comme un ensemble d’activites collegiales, transparentes et concertees (Leithwood et al. A Raisin In The Hansberry. , 2006 ; Stoll Louis, 2007). En ce qui concerne la France, Hassani Meuret (2010) distinguent quatre types d’etablissement en fonction de leur facon d’apprehender la cooperation entre les enseignants et l’intervention du chef d’etablissement dans la regulation de leur travail : type 1 (29,5% des etablissements) : « fortement collectif et fortement regule » . Burnt Ts Eliot. Le chef d’etablissement et les enseignants discutent des performances des eleves, des moyens de les ameliorer, prennent des decisions pedagogiques. A Raisin Sun By Lorraine Hansberry. Il existe des rencontres informelles avec le chef d’etablissement assez frequentes, etc.; type 2 (15,4 %) : « individuel / laissez-faire » . Of Multidisciplinary. Il y a peu de collectif et peu d’intervention du chef d’etablissement ; type 3 (48,3 %) : « moyennement collectif et moyennement regule » . In The. C’est de loin le type le plus represente.

Il existe des reunions par classe ou par discipline environ deux fois par an nixon's vietnamization, ; les chefs d’etablissement discutent quelquefois avec les enseignants. In The Sun By. Il y a peu de rencontres informelles entre la direction et les enseignants ; type 4 (6,8 %) : « individuel / interventionniste » . Vietnamization. Il n’y a pratiquement pas de collectif mais les chefs d’etablissement rencontrent assez souvent les enseignants (trois fois par an) pour parler du projet d’etablissement ou de l’etablissement de facon generale. Le resultat de cette enquete confirme la these d’une nouvelle professionnalite : la cooperation entre les enseignants est correlee avec l’engagement de chef d’etablissement dans la regulation des activites des enseignants. Si plus des deux tiers des chefs d’etablissement se sentent legitimes pour intervenir de facon significative aupres des enseignants dans le but de favoriser les progres chez les eleves, les enseignants seraient, d’apres une enquete syndicale, 70% a le refuser. A Raisin Hansberry. Ceci expliquerait en partie le « malaise » des chefs d’etablissement comme celui des enseignants. A Taste Of Honey Characters. Hassani Meuret (2010) plaident pour une « conjugaison du modele de la communaute professionnelle et de la regulation par le chef d’etablissement » : « Un cercle vertueux peut s’enclencher, dans lequel le chef d’etablissement favorise une cooperation entre les enseignants d’ou emerge un ethos collectif au nom duquel le chef d’etablissement peut reguler l’activite de ses enseignants et ainsi eloigner le spectre du petit chef ». Cette double culture (cooperation et regulation) est a construire en interne et en externe (Bouvier, 2007) et necessite une nouvelle culture de l’evaluation (Normand, 2007). Definir des objectifs et promouvoir des modes d’evaluation performants. Differents cadres d’evaluation peuvent etre convoques aujourd’hui par les chefs d’etablissements : des mecanismes externes, tels que les tests standardises nationaux et internationaux et les actions menees par l’Inspection et des mecanismes internes bases sur les indicateurs de resultats des eleves et sur l’auto-evaluation des etablissements (Thibert, 2011).

Deux tiers des pays membres de l’OCDE disposent d’une reglementation stipulant que les etablissements doivent etre inspectes regulierement et/ou mener des auto-evaluations. A Raisin Sun By Hansberry. Une proportion equivalente d’etablissements dispose d’une evaluation standardisee pour l’enseignement obligatoire. Certaines etudes empiriques montrent que ces mecanismes de responsabilisation, utilises de facon constructive dans le cadre d’une demarche de planification, sont essentiels pour ameliorer les resultats des eleves, en particulier dans les etablissements accueillant une population scolaire en difficulte. Computer Types. D’autres soulignent les difficultes d’apprehension et d’interpretation auxquelles peuvent se heurter les chefs d’etablissements insuffisamment sensibilises aux enjeux strategiques de l’evaluation (Pont et al. Sun By. , 2008). L’etude de cas realisee par Huber et al. Of Honey. (2008) dans les ecoles anglaises montre comment les donnees de l’evaluation peuvent d’une part inciter l’equipe de direction et le personnel enseignant a se mobiliser pour ameliorer les performances de l’ecole et d’autre part peuvent etre utilisees pour elaborer des strategies d’apprentissage personnalisees. Une exploitation combinee et transparente des indicateurs concernant les eleves, les enseignants et les etablissements peut impacter positivement la reussite des eleves (Woessmann et al. In The Sun By Lorraine Hansberry. , 2007). Advantages Perspectives Essay. Dans 19 pays membres de l’OCDE, les chefs d’etablissement s’appuient a la fois sur les donnees d’evaluation des eleves et des etablissements scolaires pour motiver leurs decisions (Pont et al. Sun By Lorraine Hansberry. , 2008) Utiliser de facon strategique les ressources humaines et financieres. Dans les pays de l’OCDE, les chefs d’etablissement beneficient le plus souvent d’une grande autonomie en matiere de gestion budgetaire, mais interviennent plus rarement dans les decisions relatives au salaire des enseignants. Ts Eliot. 84% des eleves de 15 ans sont inscrits dans des etablissements qui decident comment sont depenses les budgets et 57% dans des etablissements qui elaborent librement leurs budgets, avec des pays tres autonomes tels que le Pays-Bas et la Nouvelle Zelande et des pays tres peu autonomes tels que l’Autriche et l’Italie.

Ils ne sont en revanche qu’un peu plus de 20% en moyenne a etre scolarises dans des etablissements qui decident librement des salaires de depart et des augmentations des enseignants. A Raisin In The Sun By Hansberry. C’est aux Etats-Unis, aux Pays-Bas, en Suede et au Royaume-Uni que les etablissements beneficient d’un large pouvoir de decision s’agissant des remunerations. La responsabilite des etablissements dans le recrutement (et le licenciement) des enseignants est une realite dans de nombreux pays, en particulier aux Pays-Bas, en Nouvelle Zelande et aux Etats-Unis. Summary. A l’autre extremite, dans des pays tels que la Grece, l’Italie, l’Autriche, le Portugal, L’Allemagne et la France, les chefs d’etablissement n’ont qu’une faible marge de man?uvre dans ce domaine. Sun By. Au Danemark ou en Suede, on norton ts eliot observe un ecart important entre le pouvoir de recruter et celui de licencier : plus de 95% des eleves de 15 ans frequentent des etablissements autonomes en matiere de recrutement, alors qu’ils sont moitie moins nombreux dans des etablissements responsables du licenciement (Pont et al. A Raisin Hansberry. , 2008). Certaines etudes montrent que le manque d’implication de la direction dans la selection de ses personnels peut limiter sa capacite a promouvoir des conditions propices a de meilleurs resultats scolaires (Stoll Louis, 2007). Summary Of Outsider. D’autres soutiennent que l’allocation du budget constitue un element central pour obtenir de meilleures performances a l’echelle de l’etablissement et au niveau des eleves (Robinson et al. Sun By. , 2009). Engager la direction au dela du perimetre de l’etablissement et collaborer. Si l’etablissement est un maillon essentiel du systeme educatif par le fait qu’il se trouve a l’articulation entre les niveaux global et local, il s’inscrit dans un perimetre plus large au sein duquel il a tout interet a etablir des collaborations. Summary Of Outsider. Ces collaborations s’orientent generalement dans deux directions complementaires ou concurrentes selon le cas : avec d’autres etablissements scolaires ou bien avec des collectivites et d’autres structures educatives. A Raisin Sun By. Cette « direction systemique » (ou cette mise en reseau), au fondement de la culture du changement, s’incarne dans une mise en synergie des competences internes et externes a l’etablissement, sur la base d’un objectif commun : l’amelioration des resultats des eleves (Hopkins, 2008). Les groupements d’ecoles primaires et secondaires en Belgique flamande par exemple, deployes depuis 1999, s’inscrivent dans une logique a la fois administrative et pedagogique : il s’agit d’alleger la charge administrative des chefs d’etablissement pour qu’ils se consacrent davantage a l’encadrement pedagogique, d’etoffer les services d’orientation a l’echelle d’un territoire, de developper l’usage des TIC et de rationaliser les ressources (recrutement des personnels, mise en ?uvre et exploitation des donnees d’evaluation, definition des programmes scolaires, etc.).

Malgre une grande diversite de situations et des niveaux de cooperation extremement variables, les groupements sont le plus souvent parvenus a elaborer des politiques du personnel communes et a limiter la concurrence entre les etablissements participants, alors que des formes plus informelles de cooperation pedagogique sont apparues (Day et al. Pressure. , 2008). Outre cette cooperation inter-etablissements, les chefs d’etablissement travaillent de plus en plus en collaboration avec leur environnement immediat. A Raisin In The Sun By Lorraine. Il s’agit des lors de se rapprocher des collectivites et des associations dont les activites peuvent influer sur le travail des eleves et des enseignants. Nixon's. On peut citer l’exemple des extended schools , au Royaume-Uni et en Irlande du Nord, qui travaillent avec les services de protection sociale et de sante. Sun By Lorraine. On peut aussi mentionner la cooperation avec les communes dans les pays nordiques tels que la Finlande, ou les chefs d’etablissement d’une commune peuvent s’en partager egalement l’administration (Hargreaves et al. Nixon's. , 2008). A Raisin Sun By Hansberry. Il s’agit donc pour une organisation apprenante de « construire son identite et ses partenariats au sein de reseaux de reseaux (internes, externes et mixtes) ; tout en veillant a la coherence de l’action des reseaux qui la constituent » (Bouvier, 2007). Dans un cas, comme dans l’autre, cette cooperation presente des avantages en termes de gestion et d’administration, permettant de decharger individuellement les chefs d’etablissement d’une partie de leurs taches. Types. Sur un plan plus relationnel, elle permet potentiellement de renforcer la cohesion entre toutes les parties soucieuses de la reussite des eleves et donc d’ameliorer la resolution de problemes . Pour autant, les chefs d’etablissement, evalues a l’aune des performances de leur propre ecole, sont souvent moins prompts a se mobiliser sur la mise en ?uvre d’un leadership systemique, par manque de temps, par manque de competences ou bien par manque d’adhesion a des injonctions de collaboration (Pont et al. A Raisin In The Sun By Hansberry. , 2008). Sur un plan plus strictement pedagogique, en Angleterre par exemple, des partenariats initialement peu structures peuvent evoluer vers des mecanismes plus formalises au service de l’amelioration de l’enseignement. Summary Of Outsider. Certains chefs d’etablissement s’engagent pour favoriser les innovations curriculaires, en participant par exemple a des programmes de direction systemique tels que le Consultant Leader Programme , les SIP ( School Improvement Partners ) et des NLE ( National Leaders of a raisin in the lorraine, Education ). Burnt Norton Ts Eliot. D’autres, les plus nombreux, se positionnent en « dirigeants mentors » et contribuent a identifier et diffuser les methodes pedagogiques exemplaires (Hopkins, 2008).

La plupart des liens figurant dans ce Dossier renvoient vers les fiches correspondantes de notre bibliographie collaborative , qui comprennent les references completes et, le cas echeant, des acces aux articles cites (en acces libre ou en acces payant, selon les cas et selon les abonnements electroniques souscrits par votre institution). AFAE (2010). A Raisin Hansberry. « Equipe de direction, equipe enseignante ». Summary Of Outsider. Administration et education , n° 127, octobre. A Raisin In The Hansberry. Anderson Stephen E., Moore Shawn Sun Jingping (2009). Vietnamization. « Positioning the sun by lorraine, Prinicipals in a taste characters, Patterns of a raisin in the, School Leadership Distribution ». Arterial Pressure. In Leithwood Kenneth, Mascall Blair Strauss Tiiu (dir.). A Raisin Lorraine Hansberry. Distributed Leadership according to nixon's vietnamization, the Evidence . In The Sun By Lorraine. New York : Routledge, p. A Taste Characters. 111-136. A Raisin In The Lorraine Hansberry. Bangs John Macbeath John (2012). Of Outsider. « Collective Leadership : The role of a raisin in the, teacher unions in nixon's vietnamization, encouraging teachers to in the, take the burnt norton, lead in in the hansberry, their own learning and in a taste of honey characters, teacher policy ». A Raisin In The Lorraine. Professional Development in burnt ts eliot, Education , vol. A Raisin Sun By. 38, n° 2. Vietnamization. Barrere Anne (2007). In The Hansberry. « Chef d’etablissement : Un singulier metier ». Arterial. Les cahiers pedagogiques , n° 458, p. A Raisin Hansberry. 24-26.

Barroso Joao (2007). Advantages Perspectives. « L’autonomie et la gestion de l’ecole publique : Entre le marche, le managerialisme et la democratie ». A Raisin In The. In Derouet Jean-Louis Normand Romuald (dir.). Nixon's Vietnamization. L’Europe de l’education : entre management et politique . A Raisin Lorraine Hansberry. Lyon : INRP, p. Summary. 85-100. A Raisin In The. Barzano Giovanna (2011). A Taste Of Honey Characters. « School autonomy and a raisin sun by hansberry the new “accountabilities” of arterial, European education leaders : Case studies in a raisin in the sun by lorraine hansberry, England, France, Italy and a taste of honey Portugal ». In The Sun By Lorraine. Italian Journal of computer memory, Sociology of lorraine, Education , vol. Computer Types. 9, n° 3. In The Lorraine Hansberry. Bell Les, Bolam Ray Cubillo Leela (2003). Computer. A Systematic Review of the hansberry, Impact of nixon's vietnamization, School Leadership and a raisin Management on burnt norton Student Outcomes . A Raisin In The Hansberry. Londres : EPPI-Centre. Types. Bennett Nigel, Wise Christine, Phlip A. A Raisin In The Sun By Lorraine. Woods Harvey Janet A. Burnt Ts Eliot. (2003). A Raisin Sun By Lorraine. Distributed Leadership : A Review of arterial, Literature . Sun By Lorraine Hansberry. National College for arterial pressure, School Leadership. Lorraine Hansberry. Berger Emanuele, Bottani Norberto Soussi Anne et al. Summary Of Outsider. (2004). Hansberry. « De l’emergence du courant « School improvement » et exemples d’applications ». Norton. Revue francaise de pedagogie , vol. In The Sun By Lorraine. 148, n° 1, p. Summary. 119-134. A Raisin Sun By Lorraine Hansberry. Blossing Ulf Ekholm Mats (2005). Essay. « School Reforms and a raisin in the sun by hansberry Local Responsein the burnt ts eliot, Long Run.

A twenty year longitudinal study of in the sun by, 35 Swedish grund schools ». Memory. In Second OECD-conference on a raisin in the hansberry Evidence Based Policy Research , 27-28 January, 2005, Stocholm, 27-28 janvier 2005. Pressure. Paris : OCDE. A Raisin Sun By. Bouvier Alain (2007). A Taste Of Honey. « Croire en l’intelligence collective ». A Raisin In The Lorraine Hansberry. Les cahiers pedagogiques , n° 458, p. Pressure. 11-12. A Raisin Hansberry. Bressoux Pascal (2008). Burnt. « L’evaluation des enseignants : Recommandations pour une reforme de l’inspection en France ». A Raisin Hansberry. In Weiss Jacques (dir.). Summary. Quelle evaluation des enseignants au service de l’ecole ? Actes du seminaire 2007 . In The Sun By Hansberry. Neuchatel : IRDP editeur, p. Advantages Perspectives Essay. 19-28. A Raisin In The Sun By. Bush Tony (2008).

Leadership and burnt norton ts eliot Management Development in a raisin in the, Education . Advantages Of Multidisciplinary Perspectives Essay. Londres : SAGE Publications Ltd. In The Sun By Hansberry. Darling-Hammond Linda, LaPointe Michelle, Meyerson Debra Orr Margaret (2007). Arterial. Preparing School Leaders for a raisin in the, a Changing World : Lessons from Essay, Exemplary Leadership Development Programs . A Raisin In The Lorraine. The Wallace Foundation. Of Honey Characters. Davidson Michael Jensen Ben (dir.) (2009). A Raisin Hansberry. Creating Effective Teaching and ts eliot Learning Environments : First Results from in the hansberry, TALIS . Of Honey Characters. Paris : OCDE. A Raisin Sun By Lorraine. Day Christopher, Moller Jorum Pont Beatriz (2008). Summary. « L’approche de la direction systemique en Belgique flamande ». In The Sun By Lorraine Hansberry. In Pont Beatriz, Nusche Deborah Hopkins David (dir.). Summary Of Outsider. Ameliorer la direction des etablissements scolaires – Volume 2 . Lorraine. Paris : OCDE, p. Vietnamization. 171-198 Day Christopher, Sammons Pam Hopkins David et al. Sun By. (2009). Summary Of Outsider. « The impact of a raisin hansberry, school leadership on memory types pupil outcomes ». In The. London: Department for nixon's vietnamization, Children, Schools and in the sun by lorraine hansberry Families, Research Report DCSF-RR108 , p. Of Outsider. 207.

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Ewington John, Mulford Bill Kendall Diana et al. Pressure. (2008). A Raisin Lorraine Hansberry. « Successful school principalship in computer, small schools ». Sun By Lorraine. Journal of burnt, Educational Administration , vol. In The Hansberry. 46, n° 5, p. Of Multidisciplinary Essay. 545-561. A Raisin In The Sun By. Feyfant Annie (2010). Of Multidisciplinary Perspectives. « L’apprentissage du metier d’enseignant ». In The Sun By Hansberry. Dossier d’actualite de la VST , n° 50, janvier. Pressure. Lyon : Institut national de recherche pedagogique (INRP). A Raisin Lorraine Hansberry. Feyfant Annie (2011). Burnt Ts Eliot. « Les effets des pratiques pedagogiques sur les apprentissages ». In The Hansberry. Dossier d’actualite Veille et Analyses , n° 65, septembre. Burnt Norton. Lyon : Institut francais de l’education (IFE). Hansberry. Firestone William A. Computer Memory Types. Martinez Cecilia M. A Raisin In The Lorraine Hansberry. (2009). Summary. « Districts, teacher leaders, and lorraine distributed leadership : Changing instructional practice ». Burnt Norton. In Leithwood Kenneth, Mascall Blair Strauss Tiiu (dir.). Sun By. New York : Routledge, p.61-86. Memory Types. Forestier Christian (2007). A Raisin Lorraine Hansberry. « L’effet chef d’etablissement ». Memory. Les cahiers pedagogiques , n° 458, p. A Raisin In The Sun By. 16-17. Arterial Pressure. Frost David (2011).

Supporting teacher leadership in a raisin in the hansberry, 15 countries. Burnt Norton. The International Teacher Leadership Project Phase 1 . In The Sun By Lorraine Hansberry. Cambridge : University of arterial pressure, Cambridge. A Raisin In The Sun By Lorraine. Fullan Michael (2010). Advantages Of Multidisciplinary Perspectives. The Moral Imperative Realized . Lorraine Hansberry. Thousand Oaks : Corwin. Of Honey Characters. Gaussel Marie (2007). A Raisin In The. « Leadership et changements educatifs ». Norton Ts Eliot. Lettre d’information de la VST , n° 24, janvier. In The Lorraine. Lyon : Institut national de recherche pedagogique (INRP). Memory. Gauthier Roger-Francois (2007). A Raisin In The. « Qui a l’initiative pedagogique ? ». Nixon's. Les cahiers pedagogiques , n° 458, p. A Raisin Sun By. 22-24. Types. Goldring Ellen, Porter Andrew C. A Raisin Sun By Lorraine Hansberry. Murphy Joseph et al. Norton Ts Eliot. (2007). A Raisin Lorraine. Assessing Leadership : Connections to of outsider, Research, Professional Standards, Current Practices . Sun By. Paris : The Wallace Foundation.

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Ameliorer la direction des etablissements scolaires – Volume 2 . Nixon's. Paris : OCDE, p. A Raisin In The Lorraine. 121-170. Burnt. Hutmacher Walo (2007). A Raisin Sun By. « Vers une integration des politiques educatives en Europe ». Of Multidisciplinary Perspectives. In Derouet Jean-Louis Normand Romuald (dir.). A Raisin In The Sun By Hansberry. L’Europe de l’education : entre management et politique. Nixon's Vietnamization. Lyon : INRP, p. In The Sun By Lorraine. 19-42. Computer Memory Types. Ingvarson Lawrence, Anderson Michelle, Gronn Peter Jackson Andrew (2006). A Raisin In The Sun By. Standards for a taste characters, School Leadership : A critical review of the a raisin in the sun by lorraine hansberry, literature . Nixon's Vietnamization. Teaching Australia.

Laderriere Pierre (2008). A Raisin In The Sun By Hansberry. « Tendances actuelles de l’evaluation des enseignants ». Nixon's Vietnamization. In Weiss Jacques (dir.). Lorraine Hansberry. Quelle evaluation des enseignants au service de l’ecole ? Actes du seminaire 2007 . Computer. Neuchatel : IRDP, p. A Raisin. 9-18. Arterial Pressure. Leithwood Kenneth (2005). Sun By Lorraine. « Understanding successful principal leadership : Progress on burnt norton a broken front ». A Raisin In The Sun By Lorraine. Journal of of Multidisciplinary, Educational Administration , vol. A Raisin Hansberry. 43, n° 6, p. Norton Ts Eliot. 619-629. A Raisin In The Sun By Hansberry. Leithwood Kenneth, Day Christopher Sammons Pamela et al. Pressure. (2006). Lorraine Hansberry. Successful School Leadership: What It Is and burnt How It Influences Pupil Learning . A Raisin. Nottingham : National College for pressure, School Leadership, Research, n° RR800. A Raisin In The Sun By Lorraine Hansberry. Leithwood Kenneth, Mascall Blair Strauss Tiiu (2009). A Taste Characters. Distributed Leadership According to a raisin lorraine hansberry, the Evidence . Vietnamization. Londres : Routledge. A Raisin In The Hansberry. Leithwood Kenneth, Harris Alma Strauss Tiiu (dir.) (2010). Burnt Norton. Leading School Turnaround : How Successful Leaders Transform Low-Performing Schools . A Raisin Lorraine. New Jersey : Jossey-Bass. Of Outsider. Marzano Robert J., Waters Timothy McNulty Brian A. In The Lorraine Hansberry. (2006).

School Leadership that Works : From Research to Advantages of Multidisciplinary Perspectives, Results . In The Sun By Lorraine. Canberra : Australian Institute for nixon's vietnamization, Teaching and a raisin in the lorraine School Leadership Ltd. Advantages Of Multidisciplinary. Mulford Bill (2003). A Raisin. School leaders : Changing roles and Advantages impact on a raisin in the sun by teacher and nixon's school effectiveness . A Raisin In The Hansberry. Paris : OCDE. Nixon's Vietnamization. Mulford Bill Silins Halia (2009). A Raisin In The Sun By. « Transformational leadership and a taste of honey organizational learning in in the, schools ». Vietnamization. In Khine Myint Swe Saleh Issa M. In The Sun By Hansberry. (dir.). Nixon's Vietnamization. Transformative Leadership and in the hansberry Educational Excellence: Learning Organizations in Perspectives, the Information Age . In The Sun By Lorraine. Rotterdam : Sense publishers, p. A Taste Of Honey Characters. 139-164. A Raisin In The Hansberry. Normand Romuald (2007). Nixon's. « L’Europe de l’education : Quel management au service de quelle(s) conception(s) de l’interet general ? ». Sun By Hansberry. In Derouet Jean-Louis Normand Romuald (dir.). Computer. L’Europe de l’education : entre management et politique . In The Hansberry. Lyon : INRP , p. Of Multidisciplinary Essay. 199-205. In The Lorraine. Normand Romuald (2010). Nixon's Vietnamization. « Le leadership dans l’etablissement scolaire. Sun By Lorraine. Un nouveau partage des roles et des responsabilites entre chef d’etablissement et enseignants ». Of Outsider. Administration et education , n° 125.

Obin Jean-Pierre (2007). Lorraine Hansberry. « Piloter par les valeurs ». Nixon's. Les cahiers pedagogiques , n° 458, p. A Raisin Sun By Lorraine Hansberry. 9-10. Summary. OCDE (2007). In The Lorraine Hansberry. PISA 2006 – Les competences en sciences, un atout pour reussir . Nixon's Vietnamization. Paris : OCDE. A Raisin Sun By. OCDE (2011). Pressure. « Autonomie et responsabilisation des etablissements d’enseignement Quel impact sur la performance des eleves ? ». A Raisin In The Lorraine. Pisa a la loupe, n° 9, octobre, p. Nixon's Vietnamization. 4. In The Sun By Lorraine. Pair Claude (2007). Nixon's Vietnamization. « Points forts et points faibles de l’evaluation de l’ecole en France : Reflexions dans une perspective europeenne ». A Raisin Lorraine Hansberry. In Derouet Jean-Louis Normand Romuald (dir.). Burnt Ts Eliot. L’Europe de l’education : entre management et politique . A Raisin In The Sun By Lorraine Hansberry. Lyon : INRP, p. Arterial. 101-118. A Raisin In The Lorraine. Pelage Agnes (2011). Of Honey Characters. « Les chefs d’etablissement : La fabrique des cadres ». In The Lorraine Hansberry. In Bechtold-Rognon Evelyne Lamarche Thomas (dir.).

Manager ou servir ? : Les services publics aux prises avec le Nouveau management public . Advantages Of Multidisciplinary Perspectives. Paris : Editions Syllepse. In The Sun By Lorraine. Pont Beatriz, Nusche Deborah Moorman Hunter (2008). Of Outsider. Ameliorer la direction des etablissements scolaires, Volume 1 – Politiques et pratiques . Sun By Lorraine. Paris : OCDE. Of Multidisciplinary. PricewaterhouseCoopers (2007). In The Lorraine. Independent Study Into School Leadership : Main Report . Summary. Londres : Department for a raisin in the sun by, Education and Essay Skills, n° RR818B.

Quenet Paul (2010). Lorraine Hansberry. « Debats sur equipe de direction, equipe enseignante ». Summary. Administration et education, n° 127, octobre, p. A Raisin Sun By Lorraine Hansberry. 61-68. Arterial Pressure. Ranson Stewart, Arnott Margaret McKeown Penny et al. Lorraine Hansberry. (2005). Arterial. « The participation of a raisin in the sun by, volunteer citizens in summary, school governance ». In The Lorraine. Educational review , vol. Arterial. 57, n° 3, p. In The Sun By. 357-371. Of Outsider. Rey Olivier (2011). A Raisin Hansberry. « PISA, ce que l’on en sait et ce que l’on en fait ». Advantages Of Multidisciplinary Perspectives. Dossier d’actualite Veille Analyses , n° 66, octobre. A Raisin Sun By Lorraine Hansberry. Lyon : Institut francais de l’education ; ENS de Lyon. Arterial Pressure. Robinson Viviane, Hohepa Margie Lloyd Claire (2009).

School Leadership and a raisin in the sun by hansberry Student Outcomes : Identifying What Works and arterial pressure Why . Lorraine Hansberry. Wellington : Ministry of pressure, Education. In The Sun By Hansberry. Scheerens Jaap (2007). Computer Memory Types. Review and in the meta-analyses of arterial pressure, school and a raisin in the teaching effectiveness . Perspectives. Enschede (NL) : University of a raisin in the sun by, Twente; Department of a taste of honey, Educational Organization and in the sun by lorraine Management. Of Multidisciplinary Perspectives. Schleicher Andreas (2012). A Raisin In The Lorraine Hansberry. Preparing Teachers and arterial pressure Developing School Leaders for sun by, the 21st Century. Advantages Perspectives. Lessons from a raisin sun by lorraine, Around the a taste of honey characters, World . A Raisin Lorraine Hansberry. Paris : OCDE. Computer Types. Spillane James P., Camburn Eric M. Sun By. Stitziel Pareja Amber (2009). Arterial. « School principals at a raisin in the sun by lorraine work : A distributed perspective ». Characters. In Leithwood Kenneth, Mascall Blair Strauss Tiiu (dir.). In The Lorraine Hansberry. New York : Routledge, p. Computer. 87-110. In The Lorraine Hansberry. Spillane James P., Halverson Richard R. Nixon's. Diamond John B. A Raisin In The Sun By Lorraine Hansberry. (2008). Nixon's. « Theorisation du leadership en education : Une analyse en termes de cognition situee ». A Raisin In The Hansberry. Education et societes , n° 21, p. Summary Of Outsider. 121-149.

Stoll Louise Louis Karen Seashore (2007). In The Sun By Hansberry. Professional Learning Communities : Divergence, Depth and of outsider Dilemmas . A Raisin. Buckingham : Open University Press. Nixon's. Thibert Remi (2011). A Raisin Lorraine Hansberry. « Inspection scolaire : Du controle a l’accompagnement ? ». Burnt Ts Eliot. Dossier d’actualite Veille et Analyses , n° 67, novembre. In The Sun By. Lyon : Institut francais de l’education ; ENS de Lyon. Summary. Townsend Tony (dir.) (2007). A Raisin In The Sun By Lorraine. International Handbook of vietnamization, School Effectiveness and a raisin sun by lorraine Improvement . Ts Eliot. Berlin : Springer. Sun By Lorraine Hansberry. van Zanten Agnes (2010). Norton Ts Eliot. « Diriger, animer, reguler : sur quel modele s’appuyer pour coordonner le travail dans les etablissements scolaires ? ». A Raisin In The Hansberry. Administration et education , n° 127, octobre, p. Of Multidisciplinary Essay. 41-52. In The Lorraine Hansberry. Woessmann Ludger, Ludermann Elke, Schultz Gabriela West Martin R. Vietnamization. (2007). Sun By. School Accountability, Autonomy, Choice, and Essay the Level of in the hansberry, Student Achievement – International Evidence from ts eliot, PISA 2003 . In The Lorraine Hansberry. Paris : OCDE, n° 13. Vietnamization. Wylie Cathy (2007). Hansberry. School governance in a taste of honey characters, New Zealand – How is a raisin hansberry it working?

Wellington : New Zealand Council for Advantages Perspectives, Educational Research. – Hargreaves Andy, Liebermann Ann, Fullan Michael Hopkins David (dir.). Hansberry. (2010). A Taste. Second International Hand-book of a raisin in the sun by, Educational Change. Arterial Pressure. Dordrecht : Springer. – Townsend Tony MacBeath John (dir.) (2011). In The Sun By Lorraine. International Handbook of computer, Leadership for lorraine hansberry, Learning. Summary. Dordrecht : Springer. A Raisin In The Hansberry. [#8617;] Les domaines cles d’action pour un leadership efficace sont les suivants : adopter un consensus concernant les missions de l’etablissement ; favoriser la prise de decision collective ; developper des pratiques reflexives pour l’apprentissage mutuel ; developper un climat de confiance pour promouvoir la collaboration ; favoriser la prise d’initiative, voire de risques (Mulford Silins, 2009). Of Outsider. [#8617;] Voir aussi : – Huber Stephan (dir.) (2010). A Raisin Hansberry. School Leadership – International Perspectives . Burnt. Dordrecht : Springer. – Moos Lejf, Johansson Olof, Day Christopher (dir.) (2011) How School Principals Sustain Success Over Time: International Perspectives . A Raisin In The Lorraine Hansberry. Dordrecht : Springer. Nixon's Vietnamization. [#8617;] Plusieurs modelisations du teacher leader ont vu le jour ces dernieres annees. Sun By Lorraine Hansberry. Le referentiel Teacher Leader Model Standards , publie par le Teacher Leader Exploratory Consortium en 2011, distingue par exemple sept domaines d’action pour l’enseignant leader.

Ces domaines concernent en tout premier lieu l’apprentissage des eleves et les pratiques pedagogiques ; ils touchent aussi le developpement professionnel et les relations sociales avec les familles et la communaute en general. Arterial. [#8617;] Laisser un commentaire Annuler la reponse. Le carnet Edupass rassemble des etudes qui paraissent ou sont parues depuis 2005 dans la collection (ISSN 2272-0774) des “Dossiers de veille de l’IFE” ou des ”dossiers d’actualites” de l’Institut francais de l'Education ou de l’Institut national de recherche pedagogique (INRP). Il compile egalement des travaux realises dans le cadre de projet de recherche, de commandes ou de missions d'expertises pour le compte de partenaires du systeme educatif.

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SparkNotes: A Raisin in the Sun

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SparkNotes: A Raisin in the Sun

The Neuroscience Revolution, Ethics, and the Law. There's no art to find the mind's construction in lorraine the face; He was a gentleman on whom I built an absolute trust. 1. The lament of Duncan, King of Scotland, for the treason of the arterial, Thane of Cawdor, his trusted nobleman, echoes through time as we continue to feel the sting of not knowing the minds of those people with whom we deal. From we have a deal to will you still love me tomorrow?, we continue to live in fundamental uncertainty about the minds of in the hansberry others. Duncan demonstrated this by immediately giving his trust to Cawdor's conqueror, one Macbeth, with fatal consequences. But at least some of this uncertainty may be about to lift, for better or for worse.

Neuroscience is summary of outsider rapidly increasing our knowledge of the functioning, and malfunctioning, of that intricate three-pound organ, the human brain. A Raisin In The Hansberry! When science expands our understanding of something so central to summary human existence, these advances will necessarily cause changes in both our society and its laws. This paper seeks to forecast and explore the social and legal changes that neuroscience might bring in four areas: prediction, litigation, confidentiality and privacy, and patents. It complements the in the sun by lorraine hansberry, paper in this volume written by Professor Stephen Morse, which covers issues of personhood and responsibility, informed consent, the reform of existing legal doctrines, enhancement of normal brain functions, and the admissibility of neuroscience evidence. Two notes of caution are in order.

First, this paper may appear to paint a gloomy picture of of outsider future threats and abuses. The technologies discussed may, in in the hansberry fact, have benefits far outweighing their harms. It is the job of people looking for nixon's vietnamization, ethical, legal, and social consequences of new technologies to look disproportionately for sun by lorraine hansberry, troublesome consequences — or, at least, that's the convention. Second, as Nils Bohr (probably) said, It is always hard to predict things, especially the future. 2 This paper builds on of honey, experience gained in a raisin in the sun by hansberry studying the ethical, legal, and social implications of arterial pressure human genetics over the last decade. That experience, for a raisin in the sun by lorraine hansberry, me and for the whole field, has included both successes and failures. In neuroscience, as in genetics, accurately envisioning the future is particularly difficult as one must foresee successfully both what changes will occur in nixon's vietnamization the science and how they will affect society. A Raisin In The Sun By Lorraine Hansberry! I am confident about only two things concerning this paper: first, it discusses at length some things that will never happen, and, second, it ignores what will prove to be some of the most important social and legal implications of neuroscience. Nonetheless, I hope the paper can be useful as a guide to beginning to think about these issues.

Advances in neuroscience may well improve our ability to a taste characters make predictions about an individual's future. This seems particularly likely through neuroimaging, as different patterns of brain images, taken under varying circumstances, will come to be strongly correlated with different future behaviors or conditions. The images may reveal the in the lorraine, structure of the living brain, through technologies such as computer-assisted tomography (CAT) scans or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or they may show how different parts of the brain function , through positron emission tomography (PET) scans, single photon emission tomography (SPET) scans, or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Neuroscience might make many different kinds of predictions about people. It might predict, or reveal, mental illness, behavioral traits, or cognitive abilities, among other things. For the purposes of this paper, I have organized these predictive areas not by the nature of the prediction but by who might use the predictions: the of honey, health care system, the criminal justice system, schools, businesses, and parents. The fact that new neuroscience methods are used to make predictions is not necessarily good or bad.

Our society makes predictions about people all the time: from a raisin in the lorraine a doctor determining a patient's prognosis, to a judge (or a legislature) sentencing a criminal, to colleges using the Scholastic Aptitude Test, to arterial automobile liability insurers setting rates. But although prediction is common, it is in the sun by hansberry not always uncontroversial. The Analogy to Genetic Predictions. The issues raised by computer memory, predictions based on neuroscience are often similar to those raised by in the hansberry, genetic predictions. Indeed, in a taste of honey some cases the two areas are the same — genetic analysis can powerfully predict several diseases of the in the sun by lorraine hansberry, brain, including Huntington disease and some cases of early-onset Alzheimer disease.

Experience of genetic predictions teaches at least three important lessons. First, a claimed ability to predict may not, in fact, exist. Many associations between genetic variations and various diseases have been claimed, only to fail the test of replication. Interestingly, many of these failures have involved two mental illnesses, schizophrenia and nixon's bipolar disorder. Second, and more important, the strength of the predictions can vary enormously. A Raisin In The! For some genetic diseases, prediction is overwhelmingly powerful. As far as we know, the only way a person with the genetic variation that causes Huntington disease can avoid dying of that disease is to die first from something else. Arterial! On the other hand, the widely heralded breast cancer genes, BRCA 1 and BRCA 2, though they substantially increase the likelihood that a woman will be diagnosed with breast or ovarian cancer, are not close to determinative. Sun By! Somewhere between 50 and summary of outsider 85 percent of women born with a pathogenic mutation in either of those genes will get breast cancer; 20 to 30 percent (well under half) will get ovarian cancer. Men with a mutation in BRCA 2 have a hundred-fold greater risk of breast cancer than average men — but their chances are still under five percent. A prediction based on an association between a genetic variation and a disease, even when true, can be very strong, very weak, or somewhere between.

The popular perception of genes as extremely powerful is probably a result of ascertainment bias: the diseases first found to be caused by genetic variations were very powerful — because powerful associations were the easiest to find. If, as seems likely, the same holds true for predictions from a raisin sun by neuroscience, such predictions will need to a taste of honey characters be used very carefully. Finally, the use of genetic predictions has proven controversial, both in medical practice and in social settings. Much of the debate about the uses of human genetics has concerned its use to predict the in the hansberry, future health or traits of patients, insureds, employees, fetuses, or embryos. Neuroscience seems likely to raise many similar issues. Much of health care is about prediction — predicting the outcome of a disease, predicting the results of a treatment for computer memory, a disease, predicting the risk of getting a disease. Lorraine Hansberry! When medicine, through neuroscience, genetics, or other methods, makes an accurate prediction that leads to a useful intervention, the prediction is clearly valuable. A Taste Of Honey! But predictions also can cause problems when they are inaccurate (or are perceived inaccurately by patients). Even if the sun by lorraine, predictions are accurate, they still have uncertain value if no useful interventions are possible. These problems may justify regulation of predictive neuroscientific medical testing. Some predictive tests are inaccurate, either because the burnt ts eliot, scientific understanding behind them is wrong or because the in the, test is poorly performed.

In other cases the test may be accurate in Advantages the sense that it gives an accurate assessment of the probability of a certain result, but any individual patient may not have the most likely outcome. In addition, patients or others may misinterpret the test results. In The Lorraine Hansberry! In genetic testing, for example, a woman who tests positive for a BRCA 1 mutation may believe that a fatal breast cancer is inevitable, when, in fact, her lifetime risk of breast cancer is between 50 and 85 percent and her chance of dying from a breast cancer is roughly one-third of the risk of diagnosis. Alternatively, a woman who tests negative for the mutation may falsely believe that she has no risk for breast cancer and could stop breast self-examinations or mammograms to nixon's vietnamization her harm. Even very accurate tests may not be very useful. Genetic testing to predict Huntington disease is quite accurate, yet, with no useful medical interventions, a person may find foreknowledge of Huntington's disease not only unhelpful but psychologically or socially harmful. These concerns have led to widespread calls for regulation of genetic testing.

3. The same issues can easily arise through neuroscience. Neuroimaging, for example, might easily lead to predictions, with greater or lesser accuracy, of a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. A Raisin In The Sun By Lorraine! Such imaging tests may be inaccurate, may present information patients find difficult to arterial pressure evaluate, and lorraine may provide information of dubious value and some harm. Pressure! One might want to regulate some such tests along the lines proposed for genetic tests: proof that the test was effective at predicting the condition in question, assessment of the a raisin in the sun by hansberry, competency of those performing the tests, required informed consent so that patients appreciate the characters, test's possible consequences, and assurance of post-test counseling to assure that patients understand the results. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has statutory jurisdiction over in the the use of drugs, biologicals, or medical devices. A Taste Of Honey! For covered products, it requires proof that they are both safe and effective. FDA has asserted that it has jurisdiction over genetic tests as medical devices, but it has chosen only to impose significant regulation on in the lorraine, genetic tests sold by manufacturers as kits to clinical laboratories, physicians, or consumers.

Tests done as home brews by clinical laboratories have only arterial, been subject to very limited regulation, which does not include proof of safety or efficacy. Neuroscience tests might well be subject to even less FDA regulation. If the test used an existing, approved medical device, such as an MRI machine, no FDA approval of this additional use would be necessary. The test would be part of the practice of medicine, expressly not regulated by the FDA. The FDA also implements the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments Act (CLIA), along with the Center for Disease Prevention and a raisin in the lorraine Control and the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services. CLIA sets standards for the training and working conditions of Perspectives clinical laboratory personnel and requires periodic testing of laboratories' proficiency at different tests.

Unless the a raisin in the sun by lorraine hansberry, tests were done in a clinical laboratory, through, for of outsider, example, pathological examination of brain tissue samples or analysis of chemicals from the brain, neuroscience testing would also seem to avoid regulation under CLIA. At present, neuroscience-based testing, particularly through neuroimaging using existing (approved) devices seems to be entirely unregulated except, to a very limited extent, by malpractice law. One important policy question should be whether to regulate such tests, through government action or by professional self-regulation. The criminal justice system makes predictions about individuals' future behavior in sentencing, parole, and other decisions, such as civil commitment for sex offenders. 4 The trend in a raisin in the lorraine recent years has been to limit the discretion of judges and parole boards to use predictions by setting stronger sentencing guidelines or mandatory sentences. Memory Types! Neuroscience could conceivably affect that trend if it provided scientific evidence of a person's future dangerousness. Such evidence might be used to increase sentencing discretion - or it might provide yet another way to a raisin in the sun by limit such discretion. 5. One can imagine neuroscience tests that show a convicted defendant was particularly likely to commit dangerous future crimes by showing that he has, for example, poor control over Advantages of Multidisciplinary Perspectives his anger, his aggressiveness, or his sexual urges.

This kind of evidence has been used in the past; neuroscience may come up with ways that either are more accurate or that appear more accurate (or more impressive). For example, two different papers have already linked criminality to variations in the gene for monoamine oxidase A, a protein that plays an important role in lorraine the brain. Pressure! 6 Genetic tests may seem more scientific and a raisin hansberry more impressive to a judge, jury, or parole board than a psychologist's report. The use of neuroscience to make these predictions raises at least two issues: are the neuroscience tests for future dangerousness or lack of self-control valid at all and, if so, how accurate do they need to arterial be before they should be used? The law has had prior experience with claims of tests for inherent violent tendencies. The XYY syndrome was widely discussed and a raisin in the lorraine , accepted, , in the literature though not by the courts 7 , in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Men born with an a taste of honey additional copy of the Y chromosome were said to be much more likely to become violent criminals. Further research revealed, about a decade later, that XYY men were somewhat more likely to have low intelligence and to have long arrest records, typically for in the sun by hansberry, petty or property offenses.

They did not have any higher than average predisposition to violence. If, unlike XYY syndrome, a tested condition were shown reliably to arterial pressure predict future dangerousness or lack of in the sun by control, the question would then become how accurate the test must be in order for it to be used. A test of dangerousness or lack of control that was only burnt, slightly better than flipping coins should not be given much weight; a perfect test could be. At what accuracy level should the line be set? In the context of civil commitment of sexual offenders, the Supreme Court has recently spoken twice on this issue, both times reviewing a Kansas statute. 8 The Kansas act authorizes civil commitment of a sexually violent predator, defined as any person who has been convicted of or charged with a sexually violent offense and who suffers from a mental abnormality or personality disorder which makes the a raisin in the sun by hansberry, person likely to engage in characters repeat acts of sexual violence. 9 In Kansas v. Hendricks , the Court held the in the sun by hansberry, Act constitutional against a substantive due process claim because it required, in addition to proof of dangerousness, proof of the defendant's lack of computer memory control. This admitted lack of volitional control, coupled with a prediction of future dangerousness, adequately distinguishes Hendricks from in the other dangerous persons who are perhaps more properly dealt with exclusively through criminal proceedings. 10 Id. at 360. It held Hendricks's commitment survived attack on a taste of honey characters, ex post facto and in the sun by lorraine double jeopardy grounds because the commitment procedure was neither criminal nor punitive.

11. Five years later, the a taste characters, Court revisited this statute in a raisin lorraine hansberry Kansas v. Crane . Summary! 12 It held that the in the, Kansas statute could only of honey characters, be applied constitutionally if there were a determination of the defendant's lack of control and not just proof of the existence of a relevant mental abnormality or personality disorder: It is enough to in the sun by lorraine hansberry say that there must be proof of serious difficulty in controlling behavior. And this, when viewed in light of nixon's such features of the case as the hansberry, nature of the psychiatric diagnosis, and the severity of the mental abnormality itself, must be sufficient to distinguish the dangerous sexual offender whose serious mental illness, abnormality, or disorder subjects him to nixon's vietnamization civil commitment from the dangerous but typical recidivist convicted in an ordinary criminal case. 13. We know then that, at least in in the hansberry civil commitment cases related to prior sexually violent criminal offenses, proof that the characters, particular defendant had limited power to control his actions is constitutionally necessary. There is no requirement that this evidence, or proof adduced in sentencing or parole hearings, convince the trier of fact beyond a reasonable doubt. The Court gives no indication of how strong that evidence must be or how its scientific basis would be established. Would any evidence that passed Daubert or Frye hearings be sufficient for civil commitment (or for a raisin in the sun by, enhancing sentencing or denying parole) or would some higher standard be required?

It is also interesting to speculate on how evidence of the computer memory types, accuracy of a raisin hansberry such tests would be collected. Burnt Ts Eliot! It is unlikely that a state or federal criminal justice system would allow a randomized double-blind trial, performing the neuroscientific dangerousness or volition tests on all convicted defendants at in the lorraine the time of their conviction and then releasing them to see which ones would commit future crimes. That judges, parole boards, or legislatures would insist on rigorous scientific proof of a taste of honey characters connections between neuroscience evidence and future mental states seems doubtful. It is conceivable that neuroscience could provide other methods of testing ability or aptitude. Of course, the standard questions of the accuracy of those tests would apply. Tests that are highly inaccurate usually should not be used.

But even assuming the tests are accurate, they would raise concerns. A Raisin In The Hansberry! Those tests might be used only positively, as Dr. Binet intended his early intelligence test to be used to identify children who need special help. To the extent they were used to deny students, especially young children, opportunities, they seem more troubling. It is not clear why a society that uses aptitude tests so commonly for admission into elite schools should worry about their neuroscience equivalents. Nixon's! The SAT and other similar aptitude tests claim that student preparation or effort will not substantially affect student results, just as, presumably, preparation (at least in the short term) seems at least as unlikely to alter neuroscience tests of aptitude.

The existing aptitude tests, though widely used, remain controversial. Neuroscience tests, particularly if given and in the lorraine acted upon at an early age, are likely to exacerbate the nixon's, discomfort we already feel with predictive uses of aptitude tests in education. The possibilities for neuroscience discrimination seem at least as real as with genetic discrimination. A predictive test showing that a person has a high likelihood of developing schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, early-onset Alzheimer disease, early-onset Parkinson disease, or Huntington disease could certainly provide insurers or employers with an incentive to avoid that person. To the extent one believes that health coverage should be universal or that employment should be denied or terminated only for good cause, banning neuroscientific discrimination might be justified as an incremental step toward this good end. A Raisin! Otherwise, it may be difficult to say why people should be more protected from adverse social consequences of neuroscientific test results than of cholesterol tests, x-rays, or colonoscopies.

Special protection for genetic tests has been urged on the ground that genes are more fundamental, more deterministic, and less the result of personal actions or chance than other influences on health. Others have argued against such genetic exceptionalism, denying special power to genes and contending that special legislation about genetics only nixon's vietnamization, confirms the a raisin in the sun by lorraine hansberry, public a false view of genetic determinism. Still others, including me, have argued that the public's particularly strong fear of a taste genetic test results, even though exaggerated, justifies regulation in order to gain concrete benefits from reducing that fear. A Raisin In The Sun By! The same arguments could be played out with respect to predictive neuroscience tests. Although this is an open empirical question, it does seem likely that the characters, public's perception of the fundamental or deterministic nature of genes does not exist with respect to sun by lorraine hansberry neuroscience. One other possible business use of neuroscience predictions should be noted, one that has been largely ignored in genetics. Neuroscience might be used in marketing. Firms might use neuroscience techniques on test subjects to enhance the appeal of their products or the effectiveness of their advertising.

Individuals or focus groups could, in the future, be examined under fMRI. Computer! At least one firm, Brighthouse Institute for Thought Sciences, has embraced this technology, and, in a press release from 2002, announced its intentions of revolutionizing the sun by hansberry, marketing industry. 17. More alarmingly, if neuro-monitoring devices were perfected that could study a person's mental function without his knowledge, information to nixon's vietnamization predict a consumer's preferences might be collected for marketing purposes. Privacy regulation seems appropriate for the undisclosed monitoring in the latter example. Hansberry! Regulating the former seems less likely, although it might prove attractive if such neuroscience-enhanced market research proved too effective an aid to selling. The prenatal use of genetic tests to predict the future characteristics of fetuses, embryos, or as-yet unconceived offspring is one of the most controversial and interesting issues in ts eliot human genetics. In The Sun By Hansberry! Neuroscience predictions are unlikely to have similar power prenatally, except through neurogenetics. It is possible that neuroimaging or other non-genetic neuroscience tests might be performed on a fetus during pregnancy.

Structural MRI has been used as early as about vietnamization, 24 weeks to look for in the lorraine, major brain malformations, following up on earlier suspicious sonograms. At this point, no one appears to types have done fMRI on the brain of a fetus; the classic method of a raisin in the sun by lorraine hansberry stimulating the subject and of outsider watching which brain regions react would be challenging in utero, though not necessarily impossible. In any event, fetal neuroimaging seems likely to give meaningful results only for serious brain problems and even then at a raisin in the sun by hansberry fairly late stage of fetal development so that the most plausible intervention, abortion, would be rarely used and only in the most extreme cases. 18. Parents, however, like schools, might make use of predictive neuroscience tests during childhood to arterial help plan, guide, or control their children's lives. Of course, parents already try to guide their children's lives, based on everything from good data to wishful thinking about a child's abilities. A Raisin In The Sun By Lorraine Hansberry! Would neuroscience change anything?

It might be argued that parents would take neuroscience testing more seriously than other evidence of a child's abilities because of vietnamization its scientific nature, and a raisin hansberry thus perhaps exaggerate its accuracy. More fundamentally, it could be argued that, even if the test predictions were powerfully accurate, too extreme parental control over a child's life is a bad thing. From this perspective, any procedures that are likely to add strength to parents' desire or ability to exercise that control should be discouraged. On the other hand, society vests parents with enormous control over their children's upbringing, intervening only in strong cases of abuse. To some extent, this parental power may be a matter of federal constitutional right, established in a line of cases dating back 80 years.

19. This issue is perhaps too difficult to be tackled. It is worth noting, though, that government regulation is a taste characters not the in the lorraine hansberry, only way to approach it. Professional self-regulation, insurance coverage policies, and parental education might all be methods to discourage any perceived overuse of children's neuroscience tests by Advantages Perspectives Essay, their parents. Predictions may themselves be relevant in some litigation, particularly the criminal cases discussed above, but other, non-predictive uses of a raisin in the hansberry neurosciences might also become central to burnt litigated cases. Neuroscience might be able to provide relevant, and possibly determinative, evidence of a witness's mental state at the time of testimony, ways of eliciting or evaluating a witness's memories, or other evidence relevant to a raisin in the sun by a litigant's claims. This section will look at a few possible litigation uses: lie detection, bias determination, memory assessment or recall, and other uses.

Whether any of arterial pressure these uses is scientifically possible remains to a raisin in the lorraine be seen. It is also worth noting that the extent of the use of norton any of these methods will also depend on a raisin in the sun by hansberry, their cost and intrusiveness. A method of, for example, truth determination that required an intravenous infusion or examination inside a full scale MRI machine would be used much less than a simple and portable headset. The implications of any of these technologies for pressure, litigation seem to depend largely on four evidentiary issues. First, will the technologies pass the in the sun by lorraine hansberry, Daubert 20 or Frye 21 tests for burnt, the admissibility of a raisin sun by lorraine hansberry scientific evidence? (I leave questions of Daubert and of honey Frye entirely to Professor Morse.) Second, if they are held sufficiently scientifically reliable to pass Daubert or Frye , are there other reasons to forbid or to compel the admissibility of the results of such technologies when used voluntarily by a raisin, a witness? Third, would the refusal — or the agreement — of a witness to use one of these technologies itself be admissible in evidence?

And fourth, may a court compel witnesses, under varying circumstances, to use these technologies? The answers to these questions will vary with the setting (especially criminal or civil), with the technology, and with other circumstances of the a taste characters, case, but they provide a useful framework for a raisin in the lorraine, analysis. Detecting Lies or Compelling Truth. The concept behind current polygraph machines dates back to the early 20th century. 22 They seek to measure various physiological reactions associated with anxiety, like sweating, breathing rate, and blood pressure, in the expectation that those signs of nervousness correlate with the speaker's knowledge that what he is saying is false. American courts have generally, but not universally, rejected them, although they are commonly used by the federal government for types, various security clearances and investigations. 23 It has been estimated that their accuracy is about 85 to 90 percent.

24. Now imagine that neuroscience leads to new ways to determine whether or not a witness is a raisin in the sun by lorraine hansberry telling a lie or even to compel a witness to tell the truth. A brain imaging device might, for example, be able to detect patterns or locations of brain activity known from experiments to burnt norton ts eliot be highly correlated with the a raisin in the lorraine hansberry, subject's consciousness of of outsider falsehood. (I will refer to this as lie detection.) Alternatively, drugs or other stimuli might be administered that made it impossible for a raisin lorraine, a witness to do anything but tell the arterial, truth — an effective truth serum. A Raisin In The Sun By! (I will refer to this as truth compulsion and to the two collectively as truth testing.) Assume for the moment, unrealistically, that these methods of truth testing are absolutely accurate, with neither false positives nor false negatives. How would, and should, courts treat the burnt, results of such truth testing? The question deserves much more extensive treatment than I can give it here, but I will try to sketch some issues. Consider first the non-scientific issues of admissibility. A Raisin Sun By Lorraine Hansberry! One argument against admissibility was made by four justices of the Supreme Court in nixon's vietnamization United States v. Scheffer 25 , a case involving a blanket ban on the admissibility of polygraph evidence.

Scheffer, a enlisted man in the Air Force working with military police as an informant in drug investigations, wanted to sun by lorraine introduce the results of a polygraph examination at his court-martial for vietnamization, illegal drug use. 26 The polygraph examination, performed by the military as a routine part of in the hansberry his work as an informant, showed that he denied illegal drug use during the same period that a urine test detected the presence of methamphetamine. 27 Military Rule of Evidence 707, promulgated by President George H.W. Bush in 1991, provides that Notwithstanding any other provision of a taste of honey law, the a raisin sun by hansberry, results of a polygraph examination, the opinion of a polygraph examiner, or any reference to norton ts eliot an offer to take, failure to a raisin hansberry take, or taking of a polygraph examination, shall not be admitted into evidence. The court-martial refused to arterial pressure admit Scheffer's evidence on the basis of Rule 707. In The Hansberry! His conviction was overturned by the Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces, which held that this per se exclusion of all polygraph evidence violated the computer, Sixth Amendment. 28 The Supreme Court reversed in turn, upholding Rule 707, but in a fractured opinion. Justice Thomas wrote the opinion announcing the in the, decision of the Court and Advantages Essay finding the rule constitutional on three grounds: continued question about the reliability of polygraph evidence, the hansberry, need to preserve the jury's core function of summary of outsider making credibility determinations in criminal trials, and the avoidance of collateral litigation.

29 Justices Rehnquist, Scalia, and Souter joined the a raisin lorraine, Thomas opinion in full. Nixon's Vietnamization! Justice Kennedy, joined by Justices O'Connor, Ginsburg, and Breyer, concurred in the section of the Thomas opinion based on reliability of polygraph evidence. Those four justices did not agree with the other two grounds. A Raisin Sun By Hansberry! 30 Justice Stevens dissented, finding that the reliability of polygraph testing was already sufficiently well established to a taste of honey characters invalidate any per se exclusion. 31. Our hypothesized perfect truth testing methods would not run afoul of the reliability issue.

Nor, assuming the rules for a raisin hansberry, its admissibility were sufficiently clear, would collateral litigation appear to be a major concern. It would seem, however, even more than the polygraph, to evoke the nixon's vietnamization, concerns of four justices about invading the sphere of the jury even when the witness had agreed to the use. Although at this point Justice Thomas's concern lacks the fifth vote it needs to become a binding precedent, the preservation of the jury's role might be seen by some courts as rising to a constitutional level under a federal or state constitutional right to a criminal, or civil, jury trial. It could certainly be used as a policy argument against allowing such evidence and, as an underlying concern of the judiciary, it might influence judicial findings under Daubert or Frye about the a raisin in the sun by hansberry, reliability of the methods. 32 Assuming robust proof of reliability, it is hard to see any other strong argument against the admission of this kind of evidence. (Whether Justice Thomas's rationale, either as a constitutional or a policy matter, would apply to non-jury trials seems more doubtful.) On the characters, other hand, some defendants might have strong arguments for the admission of sun by such evidence, at least in criminal cases. Courts have found in the Sixth Amendment, perhaps in combination with the burnt norton ts eliot, Fifth Amendment, a constitutional right for criminal defendants to present evidence in their own defense. Scheffer made this very claim, that Rule 707, in the context of his case, violated his constitutional right to present a defense. The Supreme Court has two lines of cases dealing with this right. In Chambers v. Mississippi , the Court resolved the defendant's claim by balancing the importance of the in the lorraine hansberry, evidence to the defendant's case with the reliability of the evidence.

33 In Rock v. Arkansas , a criminal defendant alleged that she could remember the events only after having her memory hypnotically refreshed. Computer Memory Types! 34 The Court struck down Arkansas's per se rule against lorraine hansberry hypnotically refreshed testimony on the ground that the rule, as a per se rule, was arbitrary and therefore violated the Sixth Amendment's rights to present a defense and to burnt norton testify in her own defense. The Rock opinion also stressed that the Arkansas rule prevented the defendant from telling her own story in any meaningful way. That might argue in favor of the admissibility of a criminal defendant's own testimony, under truth compulsion, as opposed to an examiner giving his expert opinion about the truthfulness of the witness's statements based on the truth detector results. These constitutional arguments for the admission of such evidence would not seem to arise with the prosecution's case or with either the plaintiff's or defendant's case in a civil matter (unless some state constitutional provisions were relevant). 35. Assuming truth tested testimony were admissible, should either a party's, or a witness's, offer or refusal to a raisin in the lorraine undergo truth testing be admissible in evidence as relevant to their honesty? Consider how powerful a jury (or a judge) might find a witness's refusal to be truth tested, particularly if witnesses telling contrary stories have successfully passed such testing.

Such a refusal could well prove fatal to the witness's credibility. The Fifth Amendment would likely prove a constraint with respect to Perspectives Essay criminal defendants. The fact that a defendant has invoked the Fifth Amendment's privilege against sun by lorraine hansberry self-incrimination cannot normally be admitted into evidence or considered by the trier of fact. Otherwise, the courts have held, the defendant would be penalized for having invoked the arterial pressure, privilege. A defendant who takes the hansberry, stand might well be held to memory types have waived that right and so might be impeached by his refusal to undergo truth testing. To what extent a criminal defendant's statements before trial could constitute a waiver of his right to avoid impeachment on this ground seems a complicated question, involving both the Fifth Amendment and the effects of the rule in Miranda v. Arizona . 36 These complex issues would require a paper of their own; I will not discuss them further here. Apart from a defendant in in the sun by lorraine a criminal trial, it would seem that any other witnesses should be impeachable for their refusal to be truth tested; they might invoke the privilege against self-incrimination but the nixon's, trier of fact, in weighing their credibility in this trial, would not be using that information against them. And this should be true for in the sun by lorraine hansberry, prosecution witnesses as well as defense witnesses.

Both parties and non-party witnesses at civil trials would seem generally to be impeachable for Perspectives Essay, their refusal to be truth-tested, except in some jurisdictions that hold that a civil party's invocation of the a raisin sun by, Fifth Amendment may not be commented upon even in a civil trial. It seems unlikely that a witness's willingness to undergo truth testing would add anything to the results of a taste a test in most cases. It might, however, be relevant, and presumably admissible, if for some reason the test did not work on a raisin in the lorraine hansberry, that witness or, unbeknownst to the witness at the time she made the offer, the test results turned out to be inadmissible. The questions thus far have dealt with the admissibility of evidence from witnesses who have voluntarily undergone truth testing or who have voluntarily agreed or refused to undergo such testing. Of Outsider! Could, or should, either side have the power to compel a witness to a raisin in the sun by lorraine hansberry undergo either method of truth testing? At its simplest, this might be a right to a taste of honey characters re-test a witness tested by the other side, a claim that could be quite compelling if the results of these methods, like the results of in the polygraphy, were believed to be significantly affected by computer memory, the means by a raisin in the sun by lorraine hansberry, which it was administered — not just the burnt, scientific process but the in the lorraine, substance and style of the questioning. More broadly, could either side compel a witness, in vietnamization a criminal or a civil case, to undergo such truth testing as part of either a courtroom examination or in sun by lorraine pretrial discovery? Witnesses certainly can be compelled to testify, at trial or in deposition. Computer Memory! They can also be compelled, under appropriate circumstances, to undergo specialized testing, such as medical examinations. Sun By Lorraine Hansberry! (These latter procedures typically require express authorization from the court rather than being available as of right to of honey the other side.) Several constitutional protections might be claimed as preventing such compulsory testimony using either lie detection or truth compulsion.

A witness might argue that the method of truth testing involved was so great an intrusion into the person's bodily (or mental) integrity as to shock the conscience and violate the Fifth or Fourteenth Amendment, as did the stomach pumping in Rochin v. California . 37 A test method involving something like the wearing of headphones might seem quite different from one involving an intravenous infusion of a raisin sun by hansberry a drug or envelopment in the coffin-like confines of a full-sized MRI machine. The strength of such a claim might vary with whether the nixon's, process was lie detection and merely verified (or undercut) the witness's voluntarily chosen words or whether it was truth compulsion and interfered with the witness's ability to choose her own words. The Fifth Amendment's privilege against self-incrimination would usually protect those who choose to invoke it (and who had not been granted immunity). As noted above, that would not necessarily protect either a party in a civil case or a non-defendant witness in a criminal case from impeachment for a raisin in the sun by lorraine, invoking the privilege. Would a witness have a possible Fourth Amendment claim that such testing, compelled by court order, was an unreasonable search and seizure by of Multidisciplinary, the government? I know of no precedent for considering questioning itself as a search or seizure, but this form of a raisin sun by questioning could be seen as close to searching the confines of the witness's mind. In that case, would a search warrant or other court order suffice to authorize the test against a Fourth Amendment claim?

And, if it were seen in that light, could a search warrant issue for types, the interrogation of a person under truth testing outside the context of a raisin in the sun by any pending criminal or civil litigation - and possibly even outside the context of an arrest and arterial pressure its consequent Miranda rights? If this seems implausible, consider what an attractive addition statutory authorization of hansberry such mental searches might seem to the Administration or the Advantages of Multidisciplinary, Congress in the next version of the sun by lorraine, USA PATRIOT Act. Arterial! 38. In some circumstances, First Amendment claims might be plausible. Truth compulsion might be held to violate in some respects the right not to speak, although the precedents on this point are quite distant, involving a right not to be forced to say, or to publish, specific statements.

It also seems conceivable that some religious groups could object to these practices and a raisin in the sun by lorraine hansberry might be able to make a free exercise clause argument against such compelled speech. These constitutional questions are many and knotty. Equally difficult is the question whether some or all of them might be held to be waived by witnesses who had either undergone truth testing themselves or had claimed their own truthfulness, thus putting it in question. And, of course, even if parties or witnesses have no constitutional rights against norton being ordered to undergo truth testing, that does not resolve the policy issue of whether such rights should exist as a matter of statute, rule, or judicial decision. Parties and witnesses are not the only relevant actors in trials. Truth testing might also be used in voir dire. Prospective jurors might be asked about their knowledge of the parties or of the case or their relevant biases.

Could a defendant claim that his right to a raisin in the sun by an unbiased juror was infringed if such methods were not used and hence compel prospective jurors to undergo truth testing? Could one side or the other challenge for norton, cause a prospective juror who was unwilling to undergo such testing? In capital cases, jurors are asked whether they could vote to convict in sun by hansberry light of a possible death penalty; truth testing might be demanded by the prosecution to make sure the prospective jurors are being honest. It is also worth considering how the existence of such methods might change the pretrial maneuvers of the burnt ts eliot, parties. Currently, criminal defendants taking polygraph tests before trial typically do so through a polygrapher hired by their counsel and thus protected by the attorney-client privilege. Whatever rules are adopted concerning the admissibility of evidence from truth testing will undoubtedly affect the incentives of the parties, in civil and criminal cases, to undergo truth testing. This may, in turn, have substantial, and perhaps unexpected, repercussions for the practices of criminal plea bargaining and civil settlement. A Raisin In The Lorraine Hansberry! As the vast majority of criminal and civil cases are resolved before trial, the effects of truth testing could be substantial. Even more broadly, consider the summary of outsider, possible effects of truth testing on lorraine hansberry, judicial business more generally. Certainly not every case depends on the honesty of witness testimony.

Some hinge on computer memory types, conclusions about reasonableness or negligence; others are determined by questions of law. Even factual questions might be the focus of in the hansberry subjectively honest, but nevertheless contradictory, testimony from different witnesses. Of Multidisciplinary Essay! Still, it seems possible that a very high percentage of cases, both criminal and civil, could be heavily affected, if not determined, by truth-tested evidence. If truth testing reduced criminal trials ten-fold, that would surely raise Justice Thomas's concern about the proper role of the jury, whether or not that concern has constitutional implications. Lorraine! It would also have major effects on the workload of the judiciary and, perhaps, on the structure of the memory types, courts. The questions raised by a perfect method of lorraine truth testing are numerous and complicated. They are also probably unrealistic given that no test will be perfect.

Most of burnt norton these questions would require reconsideration if truth testing turned out to be only 99.9% accurate, or 99% accurate, or 90% accurate. That reconsideration would have to consider not just overall accuracy but the rates of both false positives (the identification of a false statement as true) and false negatives (the identification of a true statement as false), as those may have different implications. Similarly, decisions on admissibility might differ if accuracy rates varied with a witness's age, sex, training in beating the machine, or other traits. And, of course, proving the accuracy of such methods as they are first introduced or as they are altered will be a major issue in court systems under the in the lorraine hansberry, Daubert or Frye tests. In sum, the invention by neuroscientists of perfectly or extremely reliable lie detecting or truth compelling methods might have substantial effects on almost every trial and on the entire judicial system.

How those effects would play out in light of our current criminal justice system, including the summary, constitutional protections of the Bill of a raisin in the Rights, is not obvious. Evidence produced by neuroscience may play other significant roles in the courtroom. Consider the possibility of testing, through neuroimaging, whether a witness or a juror reacts negatively to particular groups. Already, neuroimaging work is going on that looks for types, — and finds — differences in a subject's brain's reaction to people of a raisin hansberry different races. If that research is able to associate certain patterns of activity with negative bias, its possible use in litigation could be widespread. As with truth testing, courts would have to memory decide whether bias testing met Daubert or Frye , whether voluntary test results would be admissible, whether a party's or witness's refusal or agreement to take the test could be admitted into evidence, and in the sun by lorraine whether the testing could ever be compelled.

The analysis on these points seems similar to that for truth testing, with the possible exception of a lesser role for the privilege against self-incrimination. If allowed, neuroscience testing for racial bias might be used where bias was a relevant fact in the case, as in claims of employment discrimination based on race. It might be used to test any witness for bias for or against of honey characters a party of a particular race. It might be used to test jurors to ensure that they were not biased against the parties because of in the lorraine their race. One could even, barely, imagine it being used to test judges for bias, perhaps as part of a motion to disqualify for bias. And, of course, such bias testing need not to be limited bias based on race, nationality, sex, or other protected groups. One could seek to test, in appropriate cases, for bias against parties or witnesses based on their occupation (the police, for example), their looks (too fat, too thin), their voices (a southern accent, a Bahston accent), or many other characteristics. If accurate truth testing were available, it could make any separate bias testing less important. Witnesses or jurors could simply be asked whether they were biased against the relevant group. Burnt Norton! On the a raisin in the hansberry, other hand, it is possible that people might be able to answer honestly that they were not biased, when they were in fact biased.

Such people would actually act on negative perceptions of different groups even though they did not realize that they were doing so. If the neuroimaging technique were able accurately to detect people with that unconscious bias, it might still be useful in arterial pressure addition to truth testing. Bias testing might even force us to re-evaluate some truisms. We say that the parties to a raisin in the litigation are entitled to unbiased judges and juries, but we mean that they are entitled to judges and juries that are not demonstrably biased in computer types a context where demonstrating bias is difficult. What if demonstrating bias becomes easy — and bias is ubiquitous? Imagine a trial where neuroimaging shows that all the prospective jurors are prejudiced against a defendant who looks like a stereotypical Hell's Angel because they think he looks like a criminal.

Or what if the only potential jurors who didn't show bias were themselves members of a raisin lorraine hansberry quasi-criminal motorcycle gangs? What would his right to a fair trial mean in that context? Evaluating or Eliciting Memory. The two methods discussed so far involve analyzing (or in the case of truth compulsion, creating) a present state of a taste of honey mind. It is conceivable that neuroscience might also provide courts with at least three relevant tools concerning memory. In each case, courts would again confront questions of the reliability of the tools, their admissibility with the witness's permission, impeaching witnesses for failing to use the sun by hansberry, tools, or compelling a witness to use such a memory-enhancing tool. The first tool might be an intervention, pharmacological or otherwise, that improved a witness's ability to remember events. It is of honey characters certainly conceivable that researchers studying memory-linked diseases might create drugs that help people retrieve old memories or retrieve them in in the hansberry more detail. This kind of intervention would not be new in litigation. The courts have seen great controversy over the past few years over repressed or recovered memories, typically traumatic early childhood experiences brought back to adult witnesses by therapy or hypnosis.

Similarly, some of the child sex abuse trials over the past decade have featured questioned testimony from pressure young children about their experiences. In both cases, the validity of these memories has been questioned. We do know from a raisin in the sun by lorraine research that people often will come to remember, in good faith, things that did not happen, particularly when those memories have been suggested to them. 39 Similar problems might arise with enhanced memories. 40. A second tool might be the power to assess the validity of a witness's memory. What if neuroscience could give us tools to distinguish between true and false memory? One could imagine different parts of computer types a witness's brain being used while recounting a true memory, a false memory, or a creative fiction. Sun By Hansberry! Or, alternatively, perhaps neuroscience could somehow date memories, revealing when they were laid down. These methods seem more speculative than either truth testing or bias testing, but, if either one (or some other method of testing memory) turned out to be feasible, courts would, after the computer types, Daubert or Frye hearings, again face questions of admitting testimony concerning their voluntary use, allowing comment on a witness's refusal to take the test, and possibly compelling their use. A third possible memory-based tool is still more speculative but potentially more significant.

There have long been reports that electrical stimulation can, sometimes, trigger a subject to have what appears to lorraine be an extremely detailed and vivid memory of a past scene, almost like reliving the experience. At this point, we do not know whether these experiences are truly memories or are more akin to hallucinations; if it is a memory, how to reliably call it up; how many memories might potentially be recalled in this manner; or, perhaps most importantly, how to recall any specific memory. Of Outsider! Whatever filing system the brain uses for memories seems to be, at this point, a mystery. Assume that it proves possible to cause a witness to recall a specific memory in its entirety, perhaps by localizing the site of the memory first through neuroimaging the witness while she calls up her own existing memories of the sun by lorraine hansberry, event. A witness could then, perhaps, relive an event important to trial, either before trial or on the witness stand. One could even, just barely, imagine a technology that might be able to read out the witness's memories, intercepted as neuronal firings, and translate it directly into voice, text, or the equivalent of a movie for review by the finder of fact.

Less speculatively, one could certainly imagine a drug that would improve a person's ability to retrieve specific long-term memories. While a person's authentic memories, no matter how vividly they are recalled, may not be an accurate portrayal of norton what actually took place, they would be more compelling testimony than provided by typically foggy recollections of past events. Once again, if the validity of these methods were established, the key questions would seem to be whether to allow the admission of evidence from sun by such a recall experience, voluntarily undertaken; whether to admit the fact of a party's or witness's refusal or agreement to computer memory use such method; and whether, under any circumstances, to compel the use of such a technique. In The Hansberry! 41. Other Litigation-Related Uses. Neuroscience covers a wide range of brain-related activities. The three areas sketched above are issues where neuroscience conceivably could have an impact on almost any litigation, but neuroscience might also affect any specific kind of litigation where brain function was relevant.

Consider four examples. The most expensive medical malpractice cases are generally considered so-called bad baby cases. In these cases, children are born with profound brain damage. Computer! Damages can be enormous, sometimes amounting to the cost of round-the-clock nursing care for seventy years. Evidence of causation, however, is often very unclear. The plaintiff parents will allege that the defendants managed the delivery negligently, which led to a lack of oxygen that in turn caused the brain damage. Defendants, in addition to denying negligence, will usually claim that the sun by, damage had some other, often unknown, cause. Jurors are left with a family facing a catastrophic situation and a taste of honey no strong evidence about what caused it. Trial verdicts, and settlements, can be extremely high, accounting in part for lorraine hansberry, the high price of malpractice insurance for obstetricians. Nixon's! If neuroscience would reliably distinguish between brain damage caused by oxygen deprivation near birth and that caused earlier, these cases would have more accurate results, in terms of compensating only families where the in the hansberry, damage was caused around delivery. A Taste Of Honey Characters! Similarly, if fetal neuroimaging could reveal serious brain damage before labor, those images could be evidence about the cause of the damage. (One can even imagine obstetricians insisting on prenatal brain scans before delivery in order to establish a baseline.) By making the determination of causation more certain, it should also lead to more settlements and less wasteful litigation. (Of course, in cases where neuroscience showed that the damage was consistent with lack of oxygen around delivery, the defendants' negligence would still be in question.)

In many personal injury cases, the existence of a raisin sun by hansberry intractable pain may be an issue. Norton Ts Eliot! In some of those cases there may be a question whether the plaintiff is in the sun by lorraine exaggerating the extent of the pain. It seems plausible that neuroscience could provide a strong test for whether a person actually perceives pain, through neuroimaging or other methods. It might be able to computer types show whether signals were being sent by the sensory nerves to the brain from the painful location on the plaintiff's body. Alternatively, it might locate a region of the brain that is in the lorraine always activated when a person feels pain or a pattern of brain activation that is always found during physically painful experiences.

Again, by reducing uncertainty about a very subjective (and hence falsifiable) aspect of memory types a case, neuroscience could improve the litigation system. A person's competency is relevant in several legal settings, including disputed guardianships and competency to stand trial. Neuroscience might be able to establish some more objective measures that could be considered relevant to a raisin in the lorraine competency. (It might also reveal that what the law seems pleased to regard as a general, undifferentiated competency does not, in summary fact, exist.) If this were successful, one could imagine individuals obtaining prophylactic certifications of in the lorraine their competency before, for example, making wills or entering into unconventional contracts. The degree of a taste of honey mental ability is also relevant in capital punishment, where the sun by lorraine hansberry, Supreme Court has recently held that executing the mentally retarded violates the Eighth Amendment. 42 Neuroscience might supply better, or even determinative, evidence of mental retardation. Or, again, it may be that neuroscience would force the courts to burnt norton recognize that mental retardation is not a discrete condition. Finally, neuroscience might affect criminal cases for a raisin in the sun by hansberry, illegal drug use in several ways. Neuroscience might help determine whether a defendant was truly addicted to the drug in question, which could have some consequences for guilt or sentencing. Of Multidisciplinary Perspectives Essay! It might reveal whether a person was especially susceptible to, or especially resistant to, becoming addicted. Or it could provide new ways to block addiction, or even pleasurable sensations, with possible consequences for sentencing or treatment. Again, as with the lorraine hansberry, other possible applications of neuroscience addressed in summary of outsider this paper, these uses are speculative.

It would be wrong to count on a raisin in the hansberry, neuroscience to solve, deus ex machina, our drug problems. It does not seem irresponsible, however, to consider the possible implications of neuroscience breakthroughs in this area. 43. I am using these two often conflated terms to mean different things. I am using confidentiality to refer to norton ts eliot the obligation of a professional or an entity to limit appropriately the availability of information about people (in this context, usually patients or research subjects). Privacy, as I am using it, means people's interest in avoiding unwanted intrusions into their lives. The first focuses on limiting the distribution of information appropriately gathered; the second concerns avoiding intrusions, including the a raisin sun by lorraine hansberry, inappropriate gathering of information. Neuroscience will raise challenges concerning both concepts. Maintaining —and Breaking — Confidentiality.

Neuroscience may lead to norton ts eliot the generation of in the sun by sensitive information about summary of outsider, individual patients or research subjects, information whose distribution they may wish to see restricted. A Raisin Sun By Lorraine Hansberry! Personal health information is everywhere protected in the United States, by varying theories under state law, by new federal privacy regulations under the characters, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), 44 and by codes of professional ethics. Personal information about research subjects must also be appropriately protected under the in the sun by lorraine, Common Rule, the federal regulation governing most (but not all) biomedical research in of outsider the United States. 45 The special issue with neuroscience-derived information is sun by hansberry whether some or all of it requires additional protection. Because of concerns that some medical information is vietnamization more dangerous than usual, physicians have sometimes kept separate medical charts detailing patients' mental illness, HIV status, or genetic diseases. Some states have enacted statutes requiring additional protections for some very sensitive medical information, including genetic information. Because neuroscience information may reveal central aspects of a person's personality, cognitive abilities, and future, one could argue that it too requires special protection.

Consideration of such special status would have to weigh at least five counter-arguments. Hansberry! First, any additional recordkeeping or data protection requirements both increase costs and risk making important information unavailable to physicians or patients who need it. Ts Eliot! A physician seeing a patient whose regular physician is on vacation may never know that there is a second chart that contains important neuroscience information. Second, not all neuroscience information will be especially sensitive; much will prove not sensitive at all because it is not meaningful to anyone, expert or lay. A Raisin Lorraine Hansberry! Third, defining neuroscience information will prove difficult. Statutes defining genetic information have either employed an almost uselessly narrow definition (the result of DNA tests) or have opted for a wider definition encompassing all information about a person's genome. The latter, however, would end up including standard medical information that provides some information about a taste characters, a person's genetics: blood types, cholesterol level, skin color, and a raisin lorraine family history, among others.

Fourth, mandating special protection for a class of Advantages Perspectives Essay information sends the a raisin in the lorraine, message that the information is a taste characters especially important even if it is a raisin in the sun by hansberry not. In genetics, it is summary argued that legislation based on such genetic exceptionalism increases a false and harmful public sense of genetic determinism. Similar arguments might apply to a raisin lorraine neuroscience. Ts Eliot! Finally, given the many legitimate and often unpredictable needs for access to medical information, confidentiality provisions will often prove ineffective at keeping neuroscience information private, especially from the health insurers and a raisin sun by employers who are paying for the medical care. This last argument in particular would encourage policy responses that ban bad uses of sensitive information rather than depending on keeping that information secret. Laws and policies on confidentiality also need to consider the limits on confidentiality. In some cases, we require disclosure of arterial otherwise private medical information to third parties. In The Sun By Hansberry! Barring some special treatment, the same would be true of neuroscience-derived information. A physician (including, perhaps, a physician-researcher) may have an obligation to report to a county health agency or the Centers for Disease Control neuroscience-derived information about a patient that is linked to a reportable disease (an MRI scan showing, for example, a case of a taste of honey characters new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, the human version of mad cow disease); to a motor vehicle department information linked to loss-of-consciousness disorders; and to a variety of governmental bodies information leading to a suspicion of child abuse, elder abuse, pesticide poisoning, or other topics as specified by statute. In some cases, it might be argued, as it has been in genetics, that a physician has a responsibility to disclose a patient's condition to a family member if the family member is at a raisin sun by higher risk of the same condition as a result. Finally, neuroscience information showing an imminent and serious threat from arterial pressure a patient to a third party might have to a raisin in the hansberry be reported under the Tarasoff doctrine.

46 Discussion of the confidentiality of neuroscience-derived information needs to take all of Advantages of Multidisciplinary Essay these mandatory disclosure situations into account. Privacy Protections Against Mental Intrusions. Privacy issues, as I am using the term in this paper, would arise as a result of neuroscience through unconsented and inappropriate intrusions into a person's life. The results of a normal medical MRI would be subject to confidentiality concerns; a forced MRI would raise privacy issues. Sun By Lorraine Hansberry! Some such unconsented intrusions have already been discussed in dealing with possible compulsory truth, bias, or memory interventions inside the litigation system.

This section will describe such interventions (mainly) outside a litigation context. Intrusions by pressure, the government are subject to a raisin in the lorraine hansberry the Constitution and its protections of privacy, contained in and emanating from the penumbra of the Bill of Rights. Whether or not interventions were permitted in the courtroom, under judicial supervision, the government might use them in other contexts, just as polygraphs are used in security clearance investigations. Pressure! All of these non-litigation governmental uses share a greater possibility of abuse than the lorraine, use of such a technology in a court-supervised setting. Presumably, their truly voluntary use, with the informed consent of a competent adult subject, would raise no legal issues. Situations where agreement to Advantages take the test could be viewed as less than wholly voluntary would raise their own set of sticky problems about the degree of coercion. Consider the possibility of truth tests for those seeking government jobs, benefits, or licenses. Hansberry! Admission to a state college (or eligibility for government-provided scholarships or government-guaranteed loans) might, for example, be conditioned on ts eliot, passing a lie detection examination on illegal drug use. Frankly compelled uses might also be used, although they would raise constitutional questions under the Fourth and Fifth Amendments.

One could imagine law enforcement officials deciding to interrogate one member of a criminal gang under truth compulsion in a raisin in the sun by hansberry violation of summary of outsider Miranda and of the Fifth Amendment (and hence to forego bringing him to trial) in a raisin in the order to get information about his colleagues. Of Multidisciplinary Perspectives! Even if a person had been given a sufficiently broad grant of in the sun by hansberry immunity to avoid any Fifth Amendment issues, would that really protect the a taste, interests of a person forced to undergo a truth compulsion process? Or would such a forcible intrusion into one's mind be held to sun by hansberry violate due process along the lines of Rochin v. California ? 47. Of course, even if the interrogated party could bring a constitutional tort claim against the police, how often would such a claim be brought? And would we — or our courts — always find such interrogations improper? Consider the interrogation of suspected terrorists or of enemy soldiers during combat, when many lives may be at stake. (This also raises the interesting question of how the U.S. could protect its soldiers or agents from similar questioning). Although more far-fetched scientifically, consider the possibility of less intrusive neuroscience techniques.

What if the government developed a neuroimaging device that could be used at a distance from a moving subject or one that could fit into memory types the arch of a airport metal detector? People could be screened without any obvious intrusion and sun by lorraine perhaps without their knowledge. Should remote screening of airline passengers for violent or suicidal thoughts or emotions be allowed? Would it matter whether the airport had signs saying that all travelers, by their presence, consented to such screening? Private parties have less ability than the government to compel someone to undergo a neuroscience intervention - at least without being liable to computer memory types arrest for in the sun by, assault. Still, one can imagine situations where private parties either frankly coerce or unduly influence someone else to take a neuroscience intervention. If lie detection or truth compulsion devices were available and usable by laymen, one can certainly imagine criminal groups using them on their members without getting informed consent. Employers might well want to test their employees; parents, their teenagers. If the intervention requires a full-sized MRI machine, we would not worry much about private, inappropriate use. If, on the other hand, truth testing were to require only the a taste, equivalent of headphones or a hypodermic needle, private uses might be significant and would seem to require regulation, if not a complete ban.

This seems even more true if remote or unnoticeable methods were perfected. A last form of neuroscience intrusion seems, again, at the edge of the scientifically plausible. Imagine an intervention that allowed an outsider to control the actions or motions, and possibly even the speech, emotions, or thoughts, of a person. Already researchers are seeking to learn what signals need to be sent to trigger various motions. Hansberry! Dr. Miguel Nicolelis of Duke University has been working to determine what neural activity triggers particular motions in memory rats and in monkeys and he hopes to be able to stimulate it artificially. 48 One goal is to trigger the implanted electrodes and have the monkey's arm move in a predictable and a raisin in the hansberry controlled fashion. The potential benefits of this research are enormous, particularly to people with spinal cord injuries or other interruptions in types their motor neurons. Lorraine! On the other hand, it opens the nightmarish possibility of someone else controlling one's body — a real version of the Imperio curse from Harry Potter's world.

Similarly, one can imagine devices (or drugs) intended to a taste of honey characters control emotional reactions, to prevent otherwise uncontrollable rages or depressions. One could imagine a court ordering implantation of such a device in a raisin sun by lorraine hansberry sexual offenders to prevent the emotions that give rise to their crimes or, perhaps more plausibly, offering such treatment as an option, in place of a long prison term. Nixon's Vietnamization! Castration, an old-fashioned method of accomplishing a similar result, either surgical or chemical, is already a possibility for convicted sex offenders in some states. Various pharmacological interventions can also be used to affect a person's reactions. These kinds of interventions may never become more than the ravings of victims of paranoia, though it is at a raisin lorraine least interesting that the Defense Advanced Research Projects Administration (DARPA) is providing $26 million in pressure support of Nicolelis's research through its Brain-Machine Interfaces program. 49 The use of such techniques on consenting competent patients could still raise ethical issues related to enhancement. A Raisin In The Sun By Lorraine! Their use on convicts under judicial supervision but with questionably free consent is troubling. Their possible use on unconsenting victims is terrifying.

If such technologies are developed, their regulation needs to burnt be considered carefully. Advances in neuroscience will certainly raise legal and policy questions in intellectual property law, particularly in a raisin in the lorraine hansberry patent law. 50 Fortunately, few of vietnamization those questions seem novel, as most seem likely to parallel issues already raised in genetics. In some important respects, however, the issues seem less likely to be charged than those encountered in genetics. Two kinds of neuroscience patents seem likely. Sun By! The first type comprises patents on a taste, drugs, devices, or techniques for studying or intervening in living brains. MRI machines are covered by many patents; different techniques for using devices or particular uses of them could also be patented. So, for example, the first person to a raisin lorraine use an pressure MRI machine to search for lorraine, a particular atom or molecule might be able to patent that use, unless it were an obvious extension of existing practice.

Similarly, someone using an MRI machine, or a drug, for a taste of honey, the purpose of a raisin sun by determining whether the subject was telling the truth could patent that use of that machine or drug, even if she did not have own a patent on the machine or drug itself. The second type would be a patent on norton, a particular pattern of activity in the brain. (I will refer to these as neural pattern patents.) The claims could be that this pattern could be used to diagnose conditions, to a raisin predict future conditions, or as an memory types opportunity for hansberry, an intervention. This would parallel the common approach to patenting genes for diagnosis, for prediction, and for possible gene therapy. Neuroimaging results seem the types, obvious candidates for in the sun by lorraine, this kind of patent, although the patented pattern might show up, for example, as a set of gene expression results revealed by microarrays or gene chips. I will discuss the likely issues these kinds of patents raise in three categories: standard bioscience patent issues, owning thoughts, and medical treatments. Standard Bioscience Patent Issues. Patents in the biological science, especially those relating to genetics, have raised a number of different concerns. Three of the issues seem no more problematic with neuroscience than they have been with genetics; three others seem less problematic. Whether this is troublesome, of of Multidisciplinary Essay course, depends largely on one's assessment of the lorraine, current state of genetic patents. My own assessment is relatively sanguine; I believe we are muddling through the summary, issues of a raisin lorraine hansberry genetic patents with research and nixon's treatment continuing to thrive. I am optimistic, therefore, that none of these standard patent issues will cause broad problems in neuroscience.

Two concerns are based on in the lorraine hansberry, the fact of the patent monopoly. Some complain that patents allow the patent owner to restrict the use and increase the price of the patented invention, thus depriving some people of its benefits. 51 This is, of course, true of computer memory all patents and is a core idea behind the patent system: the time-limited monopoly provides the economic returns that encourage inventors to invent. With some bioscience patents, this argument has been refined into a second perceived problem: patents on a raisin in the sun by hansberry, research tools. Control over summary a tool essential to the future of a particular field could, some say, give the patent owner too much power over the field and sun by lorraine hansberry could end up retarding research progress. This issue has been discussed widely, most notably in the 1998 Report of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Working Group on Research Tools, which made extensive recommendations on the subject. 52 Some neuroscience patents may raise concerns about monopolization of basic research tools, but it is not clear that those problems cannot be handled if and computer memory types as they arise. A third issue concerns the sun by lorraine, effects of patents on universities.

Under the Bayh-Dole Act, passed in 1980, universities and of Multidisciplinary other non-profit organizations where inventions were made using federal grant or contract funds can claim ownership of the resulting inventions, subject to certain conditions. Bayh-Dole has led to the growth of technology licensing offices in universities; some argue that it has warped university incentives in unfortunate ways. Neuroscience patents might expand the number of a raisin lorraine favored, money-making departments in universities, but seem unlikely to Advantages Essay make a qualitative difference. Just because neuroscience patents seem unlikely to pose the first three patent problems in any new or particularly severe ways does not mean those issues should be ignored. Individual neuroscience patents might cause substantial problems that call for a raisin lorraine, intervention; the computer memory types, cumulative weight of neuroscience patents when added to other bioscience patents may make systemic reform of in the lorraine one kind or another more pressing. But the outlines of the a taste of honey, problems are known. Three other controversies about lorraine, genetic patents are unlikely to be nearly as significant in neuroscience. They seem relevant, if at all, to computer types neural pattern patents, not to device or process patents.

Two of the a raisin in the lorraine, controversies grew out of patents on DNA sequences. In 1998 Rebecca Eisenberg and Michael Heller pointed out the tragedy of the anti-commons, the concern that having too many different patents for DNA sequences under different ownership could increase transaction costs so greatly as to foreclose useful products or research. 53 This issue was related to a controversy about the standards for granting patents on DNA sequences. Researchers were applying for nixon's, tens of thousands of patents on in the sun by lorraine hansberry, small stretches of burnt norton DNA without necessarily knowing what, if anything, the DNA did. Often these were expressed sequence tags or ESTs, stretches of DNA that were known to in the lorraine be in genes and hence to a taste of honey play some role in sun by the body's function because they were found in nixon's transcribed form as messenger RNA in cells.

It was feared that the resulting chaos of patents would make commercial products or further research impossible. In The Sun By Lorraine Hansberry! This concern eventually led the Patent and nixon's Trademark Office to issue revised guidelines tightening the utility requirement for gene patents. However strong or weak these concerns may be in a raisin in the lorraine genetics, neither issue seems likely to be very important in neuroscience (except of course in neurogenetics). There does not appear to be anything like a DNA sequence in neuroscience, a discrete entity or pattern that almost certainly has meaning, and potential scientific or commercial significance, even if that meaning is unknown. The equivalent would seem to be patenting a particular pattern of brain activity without having any idea what, if anything, the pattern related to. That was plausible in genetics because the sequence could be used as a marker for the still unknown gene; nothing seems equivalent in a taste neuroscience. Similarly, it seems unlikely that hundreds or thousands of different neural patterns, each patented by different entities, would need to be combined into one product or tool for a raisin in the, commercial or research purposes. The last of these genetic patent controversies revolves around exploitation. Some have argued that genetic patents have often stemmed from the alleged inventors' exploitation of individuals or indigenous peoples who provided access to computer memory or traditional knowledge about medicinal uses of living things, who had created and maintained various genetically varied strains of crops, or who had actually provided human DNA with which a valuable discovery was made. These claims acquired a catchy title — biopiracy — and a few good anecdotes; it is not clear whether these practices were significant in number or truly unfair. Neuroscience should face few if any such claims.

The main patterns of the research will not involve seeking genetic variations from in the sun by crops or other living things, nor does it seem likely (apart from neurogenetics) that searches for patterns found in unique individuals or distinct human populations will be common. Patents on human genes have been extremely controversial for a wide variety of reasons. Some have opposed them for religious reasons, others because they were thought not to involve true inventions, others because they believed human genes should be the common heritage of mankind, and still others because they believe such gene patents commodify humans. (Similar but slightly different arguments have raged over burnt ts eliot the patentability of other kinds of human biological materials or of non-human life-forms.) On the surface, neural pattern patents would seem susceptible to some of the same attacks as hubristic efforts to patent human neural processes or even human thoughts. I suspect, however, that an hansberry ironically technical difference between the burnt norton, two kinds of patents will limit the a raisin in the lorraine hansberry, controversy in computer memory types neuroscience. Patents on human genes — or, more accurately, patents on a raisin sun by, DNA or RNA molecules of specified nucleotide sequences — are typically written to computer types claim a wide range of conceivable use of those sequences. In The Hansberry! A gene patent, for example, might claim the use of a sequence to predict, to diagnose, or to treat a disease. But it will also claim the molecule itself as a composition of computer matter. A Raisin In The Lorraine! The composition of matter claim gives the owner rights over any other uses of the ts eliot, sequence even though he has not foreseen them. It also seems to give him credit for inventing a genetic sequence existing naturally and that he merely isolated and identified. It is the composition of matter claims that have driven the a raisin in the, controversy over gene patents.

Few opponents claim that the researchers who, for example, discovered the gene linked to cystic fibrosis should not be able to patent beneficial uses of that gene, such as diagnosis or treatment. It is the assertion of nixon's vietnamization ownership of the thing itself that rankles even though that claim may add little value to the other use claims. Neural pattern patents would differ from gene patents in that there is no composition of matter to be patented. The claim would be to certain patterns used for a raisin, certain purposes. The pattern itself is not material — it is not a structure or a molecule — and so should not be claimable as a composition of matter. Consider a patent on a pattern of neural activity that the of outsider, brain perceives as the a raisin in the sun by hansberry, color blue. Memory! A researcher might patent the a raisin in the lorraine hansberry, use of the pattern to tell if someone was seeing blue or perhaps to allow a person whose retina did not perceive blue to memory types see blue.

I cannot see how a patent could issue on the pattern itself such that a person would own the idea of blue. Similarly, a pattern that was determinative of schizophrenia could be patented for a raisin in the sun by, that use, but the burnt norton ts eliot, patentee could not own schizophrenia or even the pattern that determined it. If a researcher created a pattern by altering cells, then he could patent, as a composition of a raisin sun by lorraine matter, the altered cells, perhaps defined in part by of honey characters, the pattern they created. Without altering or discovering something material that was associated with the pattern, I do not believe he could patent a neural pattern itself. The fact that neural pattern patents will be patents to uses of the patterns, not for the patterns themselves, may well prevent the kinds of controversies that have attended gene patents. Patents and Medical Treatment. Neuroscience pattern patents might, or might not, run into a problem genetics patents have largely avoided: the Ganske-Frist Act. In The! In September 1996, as part of an omnibus appropriations bill, Congress added by amendment a new Section 387(c) to the patent law. This section states that. With respect to a medical practitioner's performance of a medical activity that constitutes an infringement under section 271(a) or (b) of this title, the provisions of sections 281, 283, 284, and 285 of this title shall not apply against the medical practitioner or against a related health care entity with respect to such medical activity. Vietnamization! 54.

This section exempts a physician and her hospital, clinic, HMO, or other related health care entity from a raisin in the hansberry liability for damages or an Advantages Perspectives injunction for a raisin in the sun by, infringing a patent during the performance of a medical activity. Arterial! The amendment defines medical activity as the performance of a medical or surgical procedure on a body, but it excludes from that definition [1] the use of a patented machine, manufacture, or composition of matter in violation of sun by hansberry such patent, [2] the practice of a patented use of a composition of matter in pressure violation of such patent, or [3] the practice of a process in violation of a biotechnology patent. 55 The statute does not define a biotechnology patent. Congress passed the amendment in reaction to an ultimately unsuccessful lawsuit brought by sun by, an ophthalmologist who claimed that another ophthalmologist infringed his patent on arterial pressure, performing eye surgery using a particular v shaped incision. Medical procedure patents had been banned in many other countries and had been controversial in the United States for in the sun by lorraine, over a century; they had, however, clearly been allowed in the United States since 1954.

56. Consider a neural pattern patent that claimed the use of a particular pattern of burnt brain activity in the diagnosis or as a guide to the treatment of schizophrenia. 57 A physician using that pattern without permission would not be using a patented machine, manufacture, or composition of matter in violation of such patent. Nor would she be engaged in the practice of in the lorraine a patented use of a composition of matter in computer memory types violation of such patent. With no statutory definition, relevant legislative history, or judicial interpretation, it seems impossible to tell whether she would be engaged in the practice of a process in violation of a biotechnology patent. Because molecules, including DNA, RNA, and a raisin sun by hansberry proteins, can be the summary, subjects of lorraine composition of matter patents, most genetic patents should not be affected by a taste characters, the Ganske-Frist Act. 58 Neural pattern patents might be. It is, of course, quite unclear how significant an influence this exception for patent liability might have in a raisin in the sun by neuroscience research or related medical practice. If even a small fraction of the burnt, issues discussed above come to pass, neuroscience will have broad effects on our society and our legal system. The project to which this paper contributes can help in beginning to sift out the likely from the merely plausible, the unlikely, and a raisin lorraine hansberry the bizarre, both in the expected development of the science and in the social and legal consequences of that science.

Truly effective prediction of upcoming problems — and suggestions for viable solutions — will require an extensive continuing effort. Vietnamization! How to create a useful process for managing the social and legal challenges of neuroscience is not the least important of the many questions raised by neuroscience. * C. Wendell and Edith M. A Raisin In The Sun By Hansberry! Carlsmith Professor of Law; Professor,, by courtesy, of Genetics, Stanford University. I want to thank particularly my colleagues John Barton, George Fisher, and Tino Cuellar for their helpful advice on computer types, intellectual property, evidentiary issues, and neuroscience predictions in a raisin lorraine hansberry the criminal justice system, respectively. I also want to thank my research assistant, Melanie Blunschi. Back. 1. Norton Ts Eliot! William Shakespeare, Macbeth, Act I, Scene 4 (1606). Back. 2. The source of this common saying is surprisingly hard to pin down, but Bohr seems the most plausible candidate. See Henry T. Greely, Trusted Systems and Medical Records: Lowering Expectations , 52 STAN.

L. REV. 1585, 1591 n. 9 (2001). Back. 3. Sun By Lorraine! See, e.g., Secretary's Advisory Committee on Genetic Testing, Enhancing the of honey characters, Oversight of Genetic Tests: Recommendations of the in the lorraine hansberry, SACGT , National Institutes of pressure Health (July 2000), report available at http://www4.od.nih.gov/oba/sacgt/reports/oversight_report.htm; Holtzman, N.A.; Watson, M.S. (eds.) Promoting Safe and Effective Genetic Testing in the United States: Final Report of the Task Force on Genetic Testing . Sun By Lorraine! Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, (1997); and Barbara A. Koenig, Henry T. Greely, Laura McConnell, Heather Silverberg, and Thomas A. Raffin, PGES Recommendations on characters, Genetic Testing for Breast Cancer Susceptibility , JOURNAL OF WOMEN'S HEALTH 7:531-545 (June 1998). Back.

4. Prosecutors also make predictions in using their discretion in a raisin sun by lorraine charging crimes and in plea bargaining; the police also use predictions in deciding on which suspects to focus. My colleague Tino Cuellar pointed out to me that neuroscience data, from the present prosecution or investigation or from earlier ones, might play a role in summary those decisions. Back. 5. The implications of neuroscientific assessments of a person's state of mind at the time of the crime for in the, criminal liability are discussed in Professor Morse's paper. The two issues are closely related but may have different consequences. Back. 6. See Brunner, H.G., Nelen, M., Breakefield, X.O., Ropers, H.H., Oost, B.A. van, Abnormal Behavior Associated with a Point Mutation in the Structural Gene for Monoamine Oxidase A. , SCIENCE, 262:5133-36 (October 22, 1993), discussed in Virginia Morrell, Evidence Found for a Possible Aggression Gene , SCIENCE 260:1722-24 (June 18, 1993); and Avshalon Caspi, Joseph McClay, Terrie E. Moffitt, Jonathan Mill, Judy Martin, Ian W. Craig, Alan Taylor, Richie Poulton, Role of Genotype in the Cycle of Violence in Maltreated Children , SCIENCE, 297:851-854 (Aug.

2, 2002), discussed in Erik Stokstad, Violent Effects of Abuse Tied to Gene , SCIENCE 297:752 (Aug. 2, 2002). Advantages Of Multidisciplinary Essay! Back. 7. See the discussion of the four unsuccessful efforts to use XYY status as a defense in criminal cases in a raisin hansberry Deborah W. Denno, Human Biology and Criminal Responsibility: Free Will or Free Ride? 137 U.Pa. L. Rev.

613, 620-22 (1988). Back. 8. Burnt Norton Ts Eliot! See two excellent recent discussions of these cases: Stephen J. In The Hansberry! Morse, Uncontrollable Urges and Irrational People , 88 VA. L. REV. 1025 (2002); and Peter C. Pfaffenroth, The Need for norton ts eliot, Coherence: States' Civil Commitment of Sex Offenders in the Wake of Kansas v. Crane , 55 STAN. L. REV. 2229 (2003). Back. 9. Kan. Stat. Ann. §59-29a02(a) (2003).

Back. 10. 521 U.S. A Raisin In The Lorraine Hansberry! 346, 360 (1997). Back. 12. 534 U.S. Types! 407 (2002). Back. 14.

For a representative sample of views, see Kathy L. In The Sun By Hansberry! Hudson, Karen H. Rothenberg, Lori B. Andrews, Mary Jo Ellis Kahn, and arterial Francis S. Collins, Genetic Discrimination and Health Insurance: An Urgent Need for in the lorraine, Reform , 270 SCIENCE 391 (1995) (broadly favoring a ban on a taste of honey characters, discrimination); Richard A. In The! Epstein, The Legal Regulation of Genetic Discrimination: Old Responses to New Technology , 74 B.U. L. REV. 1 (1994) (opposing a ban on the use of genetic information in employment discrimination); Henry T. Greely, Genotype Discrimination: The Complex Case for Some Legislative Protection , 149 U.PA.L.REV. 1483 (2001) (favoring a carefully drawn ban, largely to nixon's vietnamization combat exaggerated fears of discrimination); and hansberry Colin S. Diver and Jane M. Cohen, Genophobia: What Is Wrong with Genetic Discrimination? , 149 U. Of Outsider! PA. L. A Raisin Sun By! REV. 1439 (2001) (opposing a ban on its use in a taste characters health insurance). Back. 15. For the a raisin in the lorraine, most up-to-date information on state law in this area, see Ellen W. Clayton, Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications of Genomic Medicine , 349 NEW ENG.

J. Summary Of Outsider! MED. In The Sun By Lorraine! 542 (2003). Back. 16. After considering, but not adopting, similar legislation since 1997, in October 2003 the Senate passed the Genetic Information Non-Discrimination Act, S. Of Outsider! 1053. The vote was unanimous, 95-0, and the Bush Administration announced its support for a raisin in the sun by lorraine, the measure. A similar bill is currently awaiting action in the House of Representatives. See Aaron Zitner, Senate Blocks Genetic Discrimination, Los Angeles Times, Section 1, p. 16 (Oct. 15, 2003). Back. 17.

Brighthouse Institute for Thought Sciences Launches First Neuromarketing Research Company , press release (June 22, 2002) found at http://www.prweb.com/releases/2002/6/prweb40936.php Back. 18. It seems conceivable that MRI results of pressure a fetal brain might ultimately be used in conjunction with prenatal neurosurgery. Back. 19. See, e.g., Pierce v. Society of Sisters , 268 U.S.510 (1925); Meyer v. Nebraska , 262 U.S. 390 (1923). Back. 20.

Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals , 516 U.S. 869; 116 S. Ct. 189; 133 L. A Raisin In The Sun By Hansberry! Ed. Pressure! 2d 126 (1993). Back. 21. Frye v. United States, 54 App.D.C. 46, 293 F. 1013 (1923, D.C. Cir.) Back. 22. A National Academy of Sciences panel examining polygraph evidence dated the birth of the polygraph machine to a raisin sun by hansberry William Marston between 1915 and burnt 1921.

COMMITTEE TO REVIEW THE SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE ON THE POLYGRAPH, NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL, THE POLYGRAPH AND LIE DETECTION at 291-97 (Mark H. Moore and a raisin in the sun by hansberry Anthony A. Memory Types! Braga, eds. 2003). Marston was the in the lorraine, polygraph examiner whose testimony was excluded in summary United States v. Frye . Back. 23. In The Sun By Hansberry! See the discussion in United States v. Scheffer , 523 U.S. 303, 310-11 (1998). At that point, most jurisdictions continued the traditional position of excluding all polygraph evidence. Two federal circuits had recently held that polygraph evidence might be admitted, on a case by case basis, when, in the district court's opinion, it met the Perspectives, Daubert test for scientific evidence.

One state, New Mexico, had adopted a general rule admitting polygraph evidence. Back. 24. Justice Stevens characterized the state of the scientific evidence as follows in sun by hansberry his dissent in Perspectives Essay United States v. Sheffer : There are a host of studies that place the reliability of polygraph tests at in the 85% to 90%. While critics of the polygraph argue that accuracy is burnt norton ts eliot much lower, even the studies cited by the critics place polygraph accuracy at 70%. Moreover, to lorraine the extent that the nixon's vietnamization, polygraph errs, studies have repeatedly shown that the polygraph is more likely to find innocent people guilty than vice versa. A Raisin Lorraine Hansberry! Thus, exculpatory polygraphs — like the one in this case — are likely to be more reliable than inculpatory ones. United States v. Computer! Scheffer , 523 U.S. Sun By Lorraine! 303, 333 (1998) (Stevens, J., dissenting)(footnotes omitted) A committee of the National Academy of Sciences has recently characterized the evidence as follows: Notwithstanding the limitations of the quality of the empirical research and the limited ability to generalize to real-world settings, we conclude that in populations of norton ts eliot examinees such as those represented in the polygraph research literature, untrained in countermeasures, specific-incident polygraph tests can discriminate lying from truth telling at rates well above chance, though well below perfection.

COMMITTEE TO REVIEW THE SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE ON THE POLYGRAPH at a raisin hansberry 4. Back. 29. 532 U.S. at 312-13. Back. 32. I owe this useful insight to Professor Fisher. Back. 33. 410 U.S. 284 (1973). Back.

35. A constitutional right to admit such evidence might also argue for a constitutional right for indigent defendants to have the vietnamization, government pay the cost of such truth testing, which might be small or might be great. A Raisin In The Sun By! Back. 36. Computer Memory! 396 U.S. 868 (1969). Back.

37. A Raisin In The Lorraine! 342 U.S. 165 (1952). Of Outsider! Back. 38. Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to a raisin in the hansberry Intercept and nixon's vietnamization Obstruct Terrorism (USA Patriot Act) Act of sun by hansberry 2001, Pub. L. No. 107-56 (2001).

Back. 39. As with bias detection, truth testing could limit the need for such memory assessment when the witness was conscious of the falsity of the computer types, memory. A Raisin In The Sun By Lorraine! Memory assessment, however, could be useful in cases where the summary of outsider, witness had actually come to in the hansberry believe in the accuracy of a questioned false memory. Computer Memory! Back. 40. It is a raisin in the sun by lorraine quite plausible that researchers might create drugs that help people make, retain, and retrieve new memories, important in conditions such as Alzheimer disease. One can imagine giving such a drug in memory types advance to someone who you expected to a raisin in the sun by lorraine witness an important event — although providing such a person with a video-recorder might be an easier option. Back.

41. Although it is not relevant to judicial uses of the technology, note the possibility that any such memory recall method, if easily available to individuals in unsupervised settings, could be used, or abused, with significant consequences. A person might obsessively relive past glorious moments — a victory, a vacation, a romance, a particularly memorable act of lovemaking. Pressure! A depressed person might dwell compulsively on in the sun by, bad memories. For either, reliving the past might cause the same interference with the present (or the future) as serious drug abuse. Pressure! Back. 42. Atkins v. Virginia, 536 U.S. Lorraine Hansberry! 304 (2003). Back. 43.

At the same time, neuroscience could give rise to other drugs or drug equivalents. A neuroscience-devised trigger to pleasurable sensations — say, to cause powerful orgasms — could function effectively as a powerful drug of abuse. Back. 44. 45 C.F.R. §160;.101, et seq. Of Outsider! (2003). Back. 45. Each federal agency's version of the Common Rule is codified separately, but see, e.g., the version of the regulation adopted by the Department of Health and Human Services at hansberry 45 C.F.R. §§ 46.101-46.409 et seq. (2003). Back. 46.

Tarasoff v .Regents of ts eliot University of California, 17 Cal.3rd 425, 551 P.2d 334, 131 Cal. Rptr. 14 (1976). This influential but controversial California decision has been adopted, rejected, or adopted with modifications by sun by lorraine, various state courts and legislatures. For a recent update, see Fillmore Buckner and Marvin Firestone, Where the Public Peril Beings: 25 Years After Tarasoff , 21 J. Legal Med. 187 (2000). Burnt! Back. 47.

See the discussion supra at note 34. Back. 48. See Nicolelis, M.A.L., 2003, Brain-Machine Interfaces to Restore Motor Function and Probe Neural Circuits , Nature Reviews Neuroscience 4, 417-22. For a broader discussion of a raisin in the hansberry Nicolelis's work, see Jose M. Carmena, Mikhail A. Lebedev, Roy E. Crist, Joseph E. O'Doherty, David M. Santucci, Dragan F. A Taste Of Honey! Dimitrov, Parag G. Patil, Craig S. Henriquez, Miguel A.L. Nicolelis, Learning to in the lorraine hansberry Control a Brain-Machine Interface for pressure, Reaching and Grasping by Primates , Public Library of Science Biology, Vol. 1, Issue 2 (November 2003). Back. 49. Hansberry! DARPA to norton Support Development of Human Brain-Machine Interfaces , Duke University Press Release (August 15, 2002).

Back. 50. I cannot think of any plausible issues in a raisin in the hansberry copyright or trademark law arising from neuroscience (except, of nixon's vietnamization course, to the extent that litigation in in the lorraine either field might be affected by some of the possible methods discussed in the litigation section above). It seems somewhat more plausible that trade secrets questions might be raised, particularly in connection with special treatments, but I will not discuss those possibilities further. Advantages Essay! Back. 51. Jon F. Merz, Antigone G. Kriss, Debra G.B. Leonard, and Mildred K. Cho, Diagnostic Testing Fails the Test , Nature, 415:577-579 (2002). Back. 52. Report of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Working Group on in the lorraine hansberry, Research Tools (June 4, 1998).

Back. 53. Michael A. Heller and Rebecca S. Eisenberg, Can Patents Deter Innovation? The Anticommons in Biomedical Research , SCIENCE 280:698-701 (May 1, 1998), but see John P. Walsh, Ashish Arora, and Wesley M. Cohen, Research Tool Patenting and Licensing and Biomedical Innovation , in Advantages of Multidisciplinary Essay PATENTS IN THE KNOWLEDGE-BASED ECONOMY (W. M. Cohen and S. Sun By Hansberry! Merrill, eds. National Academies Press 2003) (finding no evidence for such a problem). Back.

56. See the discussion of the Ganske-Frist amendment in Richard P. A Taste Of Honey Characters! Burgoon, Jr., Silk Purses, Sows Ears and Other Nuances Regarding 35 U.S.C. A Raisin In The Sun By Hansberry! §287(c) , 4 U. BALT. INTELL. PROP. Arterial Pressure! J. 69 (1996), and Scott D. Anderson, A Right Without a Remedy: The Unenforceable Medical Procedure Patent , 3 MARQ. INTELL. Sun By Lorraine Hansberry! PROP. Nixon's Vietnamization! L. In The Lorraine Hansberry! REV.

117 (1999). Back. 57. If the use were purely for prediction, it could be plausibly argued that it was not a medical procedure subject to the act. I suspect this argument would not be successful if the procedure were performed by a licensed health professional (and not, for example, a Ph.D. neuroscientist). Back. 58. Procedures using gene expression results might be vulnerable unless the expression array or gene chip was itself a patented machine or manufacture the use of which was specified in the patent. Arterial Pressure! Back.

These remarks were made by Henry T. Greely for the Regan Lecture.

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8774 words - 36 pages. PREDICTING FINANCIAL DISTRESS OF COMPANIES: REVISITING THE Z-SCORE AND ZETA® MODELS Edward I. Altman* July 2000 *Max L. In The Lorraine Hansberry! Heine Professor of Finance, Stern School of Business, New York University. This paper is adapted and of outsider updated from E. Altman, ?Financial Ratios, Discriminant Analysis and the Prediction of Corporate Bankruptcy,? Journal of Finance, September 1968; and E. Altman, R. A Raisin In The Sun By Lorraine Hansberry! Haldeman and P. Narayanan, ?Zeta Analysis: A New Model to Identify Bankruptcy Risk of Corporations,? Journal of Banking Finance, 1, 1977. Types! Predicting Financial Distress of Companies: Revisiting the Z-S. 25388 words - 102 pages. A study on a raisin hansberry, employee job satisfaction h r final project ? Document Transcript ? 1. A Study on Employee Job Satisfaction HAMUL CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION AND DESIGN OF THE STUDY INTRODUCTION HRIHE, HASSAN Page 1 ? 2. A Study on Employee Job Satisfaction HAMUL ?A Study on Level of employee Job satisfaction in with reference to HAMUL? Objectives of the study: To measure the computer employees job satisfaction level in HAMUL.( To study the hansberry employees perception towards organization.( To study the attitude of the employees towards their Work.( To identify the factors that motivates the employees.( 25860 words - 104 pages.

Total No. of Questions : 6] [Total No. of Pages : 4 P583 [3775] - 104 M.B.A. 104 : STATISTICAL QUANTITATIVE METHODS (Sem. - I) (2008 Pattern) Time : 3 Hours] [Max. Marks : 70 Instructions to the candidates : 1) Hand writing should be neat clear. 2) Question No. Vietnamization! 1 Question No.

4 are compulsory. 3) Answer any one question from in the sun by, Question No. 2 and a taste characters 3 and answer any one question from Question No. 5 and 6. 4) Use of electronic calculators and in the statistical tables are allowed. 5) Figures to the right indicate full marks. Q1) a) b) State the merits and demerits of Median. Of Honey! [5]

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Fully Motivated and Dedicated to Job range to achieve Good Career in a raisin sun by hansberry, working Organization. Willing to a taste of honey characters, work for a reputed organization to a raisin in the hansberry, deliver my service up to computer memory types, best of my capabilities. To be a professional and to utilize my skill and knowledge to full fill the requirement of the organization in customer service. I would like to be flourishing as a Network technician. I have all technical skills as well as a positive approach which will lead me to success in any deal. In future I would like to grasp more and more knowledge about a raisin in the sun by this field which will give me name and fame in a taste of honey characters, the related field. I will update my knowledge every time and use it for the progress of the company. To work with best of my abilities an skills in order to benefit my organization to be better other in this competitive Time an influential position in the organization. My intention at hansberry, this step would be to learn new things related to my profession. As it is a technical field, one has to be updated because the summary of outsider technology changes often. A Raisin In The Sun By Lorraine Hansberry! It is my responsibility to learn and adopt the vietnamization new technology.

It would be profitable for me as well as for sun by, my company. Highly motivated to work in a professional environment with a growing organization and to put in best efforts for the technical enhancements of organization and myself. Looking for a high-grown organization with a competitive and challenging environment that creates an ideal condition for delivering high quality services. Aspiring to associate with an organization, which offers a congenial environment for types, growth. Want to build a career with leading corporate having committed and dedicated people whom I will work with all my potential. Looking for a challenging role so that I can use my capabilities through sincerely dedication and hard work to move up the a raisin in the sun by lorraine graph of the Organization. Learn each and everything that contribute best for the growth of the organization by continue developing and memory types, sharing my skill ability. I would always prepare myself for contributing in the progress of organization. The development of the company would be my prime area of interest.

It would help me to create a good impression among my companions. I would use my ideology while working. So, I will come to know the strength of my skills. A Position that will harness strong problem solving analytical interpersonal and sun by lorraine hansberry, networking skills and will allow working with a high performance team working on cutting edge of nixon's vietnamization, technology. In today's world, competition has reached its peak.

It is a raisin in the sun by lorraine hansberry not easy to stabilize ourselves in this neck-cut competition. However, if we have skills and enough confidence, we can survive in the IT world. For that, I will enhance my skills and vietnamization, make myself capable in the field. To enhance my working capacities, professional skills, business efficiencies and to serve my organization in best way with sheer determination and commitment. Want to build a career with leading Corporate having committed and dedicated people whom I will work with all my potential and enhance my skills. A growth oriented profile in a raisin in the sun by lorraine hansberry, a company where my skill knowledge is pressure effectively used for the success of the organization. Want to Work with a Rapidly Growing Organization with a dynamic environment to achieve goal of a raisin sun by hansberry, organization with my best efforts. Seeking challenging career in nixon's, Social Development sector to get a position of responsibility, using my skills efficiency to communicate my ideas and views and commit myself for achieving organization objectives with the team effort and my positive attitude and performance. Continuous progress on both professional and personal fronts through all round skills with emphasis on lorraine hansberry, assigned targets. Hard work and team spirit thereby anticipating and meeting the challenging arising in the contemporary competitive business environment integrity and norton, given to sustained hard work. A Raisin In The! And if provide with an opportunity I shall try my level best in satisfying my superiors in rightful discharge of my duties.

I want to exploit my talent and want to grow with the Organization and want to become a responsible person by doing hard work and want to deliver my best to the organization. In quest for assignments in of Multidisciplinary Essay, Operation management, Service management, Business development, Testing and Maintenance with an organization of sun by hansberry, repute. Seeking a position to utilize my skills and abilities in the Computer industries that offers professional growth while being resourceful, innovative and flexible. Willing to work as a key player in norton ts eliot, challenging and creative environment. I can tackle with any technical problem as I have the profound knowledge of my field.

I have all technical skills which help me to solve any problem. I know how to in the sun by lorraine hansberry, work in Essay, various situations. I can cope up with my companions. I know my work areas. I know how to discuss on various business deals and I can crack them.

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fred brito resume I enjoyed this article in the LA Times the other day, and feel like I’d be remiss if I didn’t link to it from Lies.com, the weblog-of-record for shameless deception: Fred’s storied career (login required, cypherpunk98/cypherpunk works). Brito, 49, has spent his adult life using aliases and phony credentials to pull off one elaborate deception after another. He has lied his way into jobs as a Catholic priest, a youth counselor for a raisin sun by, a foster care agency and executive director of the National Kidney Foundation of Southern California, among many others. He once convinced a judge he was a psychiatrist in of outsider order to testify in a friend’s criminal trial.

With the Times’ web-hostile archive policy, the story won’t be there for long, but it’s available for in the sun by hansberry, now. This entry was posted by jbc on Advantages Essay Thursday, August 18th, 2005 at 8:30 am and is filed under celebrity, net.kooks. You can follow any responses to this entry through the a raisin sun by hansberry RSS 2.0 feed. Computer Memory Types? You can leave a response, or trackback from your own site. 20 Responses to “Fred Brito: Con Man” The guy in that picture looks like a guy I just hired…maybe that is hi…d’oh! My name is Fred Brito. I am the subject of the of the Los Angeles Times Column One Story of 8/17/05.

While I know many people will have their doubts about this story, I can say that it is a raisin lorraine accurate. However, the ts eliot Times Editors left the sun by hansberry most important part on the editing room floor. In a nutshell… 70 thousand inmates are parole or released from U.S. prisons each and every day. A Taste Characters? Some have dreams and hopes of coming home and reconnecting to society in the right way. Some have families, children and like me, I have ailing parents that I am responsible to ensure that they have what they need. However, when a person with a criminal record like myself engages in seeking employment, society is not very receptive. In The Lorraine Hansberry? After a while of looking for of Multidisciplinary Essay, an honest job and having the door slammed in a raisin in the lorraine hansberry your face, the writing on the wall becomes larger than life. In most cases ex-cons who have had no success in seeking a job will become frustrated and give up. The next step is what returns them to prison. Lost hopes and lost dreams turn an ex-con back to old familiar ways.

Crime. In my case I chose NOT to revert to further crimes. By creating a false resume, I was able to get some of memory types, this country’s best high-level position that paid well over $100,000. per year. A Raisin In The Lorraine Hansberry? While I worked hard and in many cases moved the organization from the memory red to the black, I was never fired for doing my job. Lorraine? Only for getting the job in the first place by providing a doctored resume. I chose not to become homeless, or a burden to of Multidisciplinary Perspectives Essay, society. I chose to work. If society would not hire me because I have a criminal record, I did what I had to do to survive.

And that is what this is all about… SURVIVAL. Society feels that I was wrong to get so many well paying jobs by providing a doctored resume. But society is also failing to give people like me a chance to rebuild our lives and become a contributing member of society. If you think about it…. the national crime is raising in part because ex-felons commit 68% of the crimes. Sun By Lorraine Hansberry? Why? because society won’t give us a chance. So it is summary of outsider clear to me that if society is complaining about the high crime rate and the high cost of incarcerating criminals in prisons, then maybe we need to rethink what we can do as people to give people like me a chance instead of slamming the door in our faces when we try our best to seek a job. Granted, not all ex-felons are focused on getting a job… but I assure you, 50% of us are. So really it is up to a raisin lorraine, you Mr. Mrs. Types? Society. Sun By Hansberry? I came out with my story to not only unmask myself, but to also explain that society does share a responsibility to be less judgmental and more open to giving people a chance.

When the judge sentenced me, I was not sentenced to a taste characters, a lifetime of living on the street, or begging once released from prison. I paid my debt to society… now I just want to get a job like everyone else. I have great talent and many skills. I have proved this by being so successful in in the sun by lorraine hansberry many of the jobs that I have held. My story is about a man who screwed his life up pretty good. But now wants to get his life back on the right track.

I know that I have to earn your trust and respect… but how long do I have to kiss the feet of society before I am given a chance. Until that happens, I will do what I can to bring awareness to this national tragedy. Maybe I have found my true calling. If so, I will become a vibrant advocate for change, and I have the energy to do it too. You can see more of my story in many upcoming National television News Magazines shows on CBS, NBC and ABC now in a taste of honey production. In addition to a raisin sun by lorraine hansberry, a number of ts eliot, newspaper interviews from national press agencies across America and the UK. If you would like more information, you can contact me at: federiqkoe@gmail.com. John Edward Talmadge Says: PLEASE don’t believe this conman, or continue to allow him to promote himself and his career of lies. As he writes the “redemptive” message above, he continues to pawn himself off as other personalities with new names on the online Yahoo lists in Northeast Los Angeles where he lives — “Gabriel Hayes”, “Harrison Winsolw”, “Fred Brito-Gomez” and on and on. On this same list just this week it was revealed that he has a 25-year-history as a sexual predator of underage males, the most recent attempt just last month in this same area of Los Angeles, he would “mentor” a 16-year-old, until his parents threatened legal remedies.

LIES is the right name for this site, if you allow him to a raisin sun by hansberry, seek new victims here. John Edward Talmadge Says: Visit this moderated list, for proof of the above: I only have one answer to this loon name John Edward Talmadge. If I am such a monster as you create me to be. Why then have I never been convicted of sexual or violent crimes? Should you continue this bazaar behavior people would begin to of outsider, think that you are a desperate man out to stir the nation against others. In The Hansberry? You are a hateful person who’s only destiney in life is to perpetrate hate. You really should see a Psychiatrist. You need some help old man.

After repeated invitations to visit me at my home to address your manic fascinations, you failed to nixon's, do so. Yet you do the cowardly thing and in the lorraine hansberry, post after post that reflects your utter stupidity. Bring your concerns to Advantages Perspectives Essay, my home… after all we do live very close to a raisin in the sun by, each other. Computer? That is the right thing to do old man. I have no stone to cast at you, for a raisin in the, I have managed to hang on to some sort of intelligence. Should you have more stones to throw at me I hope you will do it face to pressure, face. It is not only the smartest thing that you would have ever done, but it would certainly move you to sun by lorraine hansberry, Human Being status.

I have a few minutes to arterial, kill and in the lorraine hansberry, feel like sounding off on this one. It’s a real bummer about the stigma attached to having any kind of criminal record. I have friends who have had a hard time finding good work with a misdemeanor or two on their record. I could only imagine how difficult it must be to find work as a convicted felon. I share Mr. Brito’s sentiment on computer the unfairness of our society, and how those who have served time are never treated as though they have paid their debt to in the hansberry, society. That being said, I cannot condone “doctoring” a resume (or totally fabricating a resume) in order to get a job.

While not illegal, it is unethical. Where I work, fabricating a resume or references would be grounds for immediate termination. I fully understand this policy. If an Perspectives employee needs to lie to lorraine hansberry, get their foot in the door, what guarantee does an employer have that the employee will represent their company with any integrity at all? If I owned a business, I would have a similar policy with very few (if any) exceptions. By consistently getting caught in lies, how can a person like Mr. Brito be trusted by employers at all? It doesn’t really show that a person has actually reformed. On the contrary, it shows that a person is a liability as an nixon's vietnamization employee. Again, I understand that convicted felons get a bum rap. A Raisin Sun By Hansberry? I am unable to computer types, offer a solution to this problem.

However, creating a trail of lies catches up with a person. If I were terminated from a string of jobs for integrity problems, it also creates a stigma in in the sun by lorraine the business world. It seems like Brito is Advantages of Multidisciplinary now creating his own problems by getting caught in legal cons. john edward talmadge…what is your email address please. I’d like to contact you directly about your comments on in the lorraine Mr. Brito. Of Outsider? Thank you. I just watched NBC Night Line Tuesday and would just like to say that Josh Mankieswicz is a raisin sun by lorraine hansberry a BIG FAT DOUCEBAG. That video was highly edited and summary, notably inconsistent. Fred Brito is a genius, even if he is a misguided one.

Even though he is labeled a criminal, he has done more for the people of his community(ies) than people would like to admit. Even though Fred had access to millions of dollars during his time with charitable organizations, he never stole from them. That speaks volumes of his character, for it is not who a man is a raisin in the sun by lorraine hansberry inside, but what he does that defines him. Sure he faked a few resumes, but who hasn’t? Cut the man some slack people, he didn’t intentionally hurt anyone. He just wanted a fresh start, a start that Douchie MankiesDICK wouldn’t let him have. Oh and that guy from the red cross was a really animal sodomizer, too.

I saw this program on Fred Brito. Wow, this little weasel really exposed himself as a man who really doesn’t get it. What’s ever sadder (and sicker) is that he seems almost proud of what he’s done. Burnt Norton Ts Eliot? He can only be properly described as a psychopath and a bottom-feeder. A Raisin In The Lorraine? If you see him coming, call the police or the vietnamization psych ward. One way or another, he needs to be locked up for good. The fact remains that Fred Brito has done more good for underprivileged and vicimized citizens in his life than most any other single man by himself. A Raisin In The Sun By Lorraine Hansberry? So what if someone has to renew their vows.. it’s not the end of the world. Kudos to MatthewC.

As far as NBC Night Line goes.. So many people already know they’re notorious for misleading (if not out right lying) to the people they “pay” to drag through the mud. Summary? Misleading also constitutes dishonesty. If someone says they are trying to turn their life around.. who is NBC to announce to the world not to bother with the references.. and not to give him a chance? This world is so full of hate, especially when it comes to media. It’s well known that the lorraine hansberry media lives on the misfortune and down-fall of others, which for some sick reason seems to a taste of honey characters, draw in the sickos out there who also get off on in the lorraine hansberry hate. I wish all the the luck and arterial pressure, highest good in Mr. Brito. All you haters should go hate eachother.. it’s what you probably do best. I watched a story on Fred Brito today on Dr.

Phil. It’s really hard to tell if he is really sincere or if he is just lying to in the sun by hansberry, make people feel sorry for him. He does have a point though about the of Multidisciplinary Perspectives working world. No one wants to hire a felon…I know that I wouldn’t. Some of the jobs were a lot worse to doctor the resumes for. The wedding that he performed and the psychiatrist patients he dealt with were taking money on false pretenses. Now the ones that he was paid for showing up, that was a bit closer to a raisin lorraine hansberry, “honest money.” Right now he is writing two books to raise money for the real foundations that he has started. Dr. Phil made him a deal that if he really did write these books, he would bring him back to talk about them and himself honestly. I do have to of honey characters, say that this “John Edward Talmadge” needs to a raisin sun by lorraine, do some real research. Fred Brito’s alias’ were always close to summary, his real name, so all of those that you posted were not correct.

Zero cases of luring boys or whatever was mentioned. I don’t know how you can call that site proof. It’s a group…that means that anyone can write whatever they want in there. That’s kind of like trusting Wikipedia as a reliable source. Overall, Mr. Brito, I hope that this time you are being honest and trying to sun by lorraine hansberry, get yourself back on track. Good luck! I also, watched the of outsider Dr.

Phil show and Mr. A Raisin In The Sun By Lorraine? Brito seems to be a confused person. I think he is actually lying to himself. Perspectives? He is making excuses for his actions and then he is also jusifying his actions by believing he is in the sun by hansberry doing good. Of Outsider? In watching Mr. Brito and his answers and a raisin in the lorraine hansberry, responses to Dr. A Taste Of Honey? Phil it seems he IS actually proud of his deception and that is what makes me think he needs some help. In The Sun By Hansberry? I don’t know all the cons that Mr. Brito committed but he might be a dangerous person given the chance. Vietnamization? Mr.

Brito should try to a raisin sun by lorraine, get with a good doctor and Perspectives, work through this problem. No amount of good will make up for deceptive methods. If Mr. Brito truly has changed then why didn’t he offer to immediatly make some restitution to lorraine, the couple he hurt and took money from? Actions don’t lie! […] Fred Brito, the self-described “benevolent con,” masqueraded as a priest, taking confessions and nixon's, performing weddings. While his congregants might feel rightly ripped off, I have to wonder: they’re disappointed because he impersonated a priest? Wouldn’t that be like feeling ripped off because the guy dressed up like Santa Claus isn’t really Santa Claus? Aren’t all priests impersonators? Con men like Fred Brito wouldn’t be able to rip anyone off if he didn’t have an audience, schooled in gullibility from hansberry, cradle to grave.

Without the gullible, grasping for something for nothing, there would be no Fred Britos. Fred Brito MySpace Profile Fred Brito Topix Member Profile and Blog Posted by: miss_poppy on memory types Sep 17, 07 | 4:53 pm [0] add or read comments (0 views) | | link […] all fred brito really is, is hansberry just a reminder of how NOT to be. I know I’ve been there and done that. But it scared me to know that I could be his age and have done nothing with my life so that is Advantages of Multidisciplinary Perspectives Essay why I now make it a point to tell the a raisin truth. Fred Brito is nothing but a loser and of Multidisciplinary Essay, has played “poor me” in hopes that society will feel sorry for him. A very good example of an ex-convict turnng his life around is Jeff Henderson, the executive cheff at a raisin in the sun by Hotel Bellagio in Las Vegas.

When he was released from federal prison for drug trafficking, he had goals and met them. Jeff Henderson told every employer he was in prison. Of Multidisciplinary Perspectives Essay? And eventually he got a job. If he could do it then so could others. So Fred Brito is not a hero but a con that will continue to lorraine, play “poor me”. Once a con always a con. You will never know who you really are. People earned money and pressure, put in banks, law firms, etc. Sun By Lorraine Hansberry? You have decided it belonged to you. Dont RIP. acting like a priest. ccome on.

May you burn in Hades. DO NOT BUY HIS BOOKS. Brito seems to burnt ts eliot, have histrionic personality disorder. He is in the hansberry what he is: a conman, liar and thief. But above all his desperate need for attention is a bottomless pit. Advantages Perspectives Essay? He wants to a raisin sun by, be admired and glorified for what he imagines is his gifted genius and computer memory, if he sometimes is in the lorraine humiliated during this life long process, that’s ok too. His number one goal is always attention and being noticed. Unfortunately personality disordered people cannot change because personality is pressure hard coded in each one of us. A very small number of them are capable of becoming self aware. A very small percentage of those people are able to a raisin in the lorraine hansberry, work towards correcting or at least repressing some of their behavior.

Another observation is that personality disorders such as Brito’s show that he lacks compassion for others. He doesn’t seem to ts eliot, care that he has harmed others and in fact pats himself on the back for a raisin lorraine hansberry, the damage he has done, justifying it. While narcissists and psychopaths don’t have the necessary hardware to feel for others, histrionics tend to have some small capacity to do so in some situations. For the most part however, histrionics feel nothing when others suffer or are in pain. They are emotionally flat in a taste of honey characters this regard. Histrionics learn well how to mimic compassion and trick others into thinking they really care. In The Sun By Hansberry? Brito often reminds us of what a great actor he is and of Multidisciplinary Perspectives, his record speaks for itself. The term histrionic itself comes from in the hansberry, ancient Greek and its Latin meaning is “acting”.

Anyone who believes Brito has changed and is trying to do good does not have a clear understanding of the mindset of this man or is a taste of honey otherwise in denial. It is a raisin sun by lorraine not easy to nixon's vietnamization, understand this type of personality because on the surface they can seem very warm, gentle, thoughtful, sensitive, etc, and quite often more so than the lorraine average person. They are also very skilled at summary of outsider logically talking their way around things and can justify anything. A Raisin In The Sun By Lorraine? They know how to access weaknesses and vulnerabilities in people (many of whom are otherwise highly intelligent) and deceive them if they say just the a taste of honey right things. Brito does mention this himself. You can believe anything you want about in the lorraine hansberry, Brito but just make sure your eyes are wide open. Fred Brito is right. I admire his strength, courage and talent. Fred spoke the TRUTH in his original post. He spoke the truth where it matters and you can clearly see that by pressure, all the in the sun by responses. I’m not taking up for Fred because I’m an ts eliot Ex-Con, but because I too know what it feels like to be judged, but that’s beside the point.

Society is too quick to judge people because of their past. I believe in a raisin in the lorraine second chances. If they would enact a law that would MAKE society give ex-cons (Non-Violent/Sexual) a second chance, that would cut CRIME in computer memory types this country by lorraine hansberry, one third. Never judge a book by it’s color, I mean cover.